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Middle East Treaties

Announcing the Balfour Declaration

Though the Balfour Declaration went through several drafts, the final version was issued on November 2, 1917, in a letter from Balfour to Lord Rothschild, president of the British Zionist Federation. The main body of the letter quoted the decision of the October 31, 1917 British Cabinet meeting.
This declaration was included in the San Remo Treaty of 1920 and accepted by the League of Nations on July 24, 1922 and embodied in the mandate that gave Great Britain temporary administrative control of Palestine as trustee for the Jewish people.

The Balfour Declaration (it its entirety)

Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,
Arthur James Balfour

The Jewish people as the indigenous people of Palestine-Israel

The results of the Paris (1918) and San Remo (1920) conferences which incorporated and adopted the 1917 Balfour Declaration as part of the treaty, thereby, giving it the force of international law and treaty and the adoption of this treaty by the League of Nations and implemented the terms of The Mandate for Palestine-Israel, where it granted to the British government as trustee the obligation to carry out the Mandate for the exclusive sole purpose of establishing a Jewish homeland in the historical ancestral Land of Israel:

Fifty-one member countries – the entire League of Nations – unanimously declared on July 24, 1922: It acknowledge Jewish sovereignty over Palestine-Israel as International law and treaty..

“Whereas recognition has been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country.”

There are two key legal points in the above statement which establish the Jewish people as the indigenous people of Palestine for over 3,000 years, and shatter the “Zionists are Colonialists” fallacy.

1. It recognizes that the “historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine” is a pre-existing right (“grounds for“), not a newly-granted right.

2. It calls for “reconstituting” their national home, not building a new national home from scratch.


The Arab and Jewish-Israel’s Agreement of January 3, 1919 - Known as The King Faisal - Chaim Weizmann Agreement.


Faisal-Weizmann Agreement
Signed on
January 3rd, 1919, the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was an agreement between Jews and Arabs who both wished to set up their own nations in the Middle East.


During the 1918-1919 Paris peace conference following World War I, the Emir Feisal, son of Hussein, Sherif of Mecca - representing the Arabs, signed an agreement with Dr Chaim Weizmann - representing the Jewish people (who became later the first president of Israel) supporting the rights of the Jews in Palestine. This agreement has not been annulled and its terms should be enforced. Neither the
League of Nations, The UN or the ICJ cannot modify this agreement between the Arabs and Jews. Only the parties to the agreement can amend or modify the agreement.



Agreement Between Emir Feisal ibn Hussein and Dr. Weizmann | 3 Jan 1919

His Royal Highness the Emir FEISAL, representing and acting on behalf of the Arab Kingdom of Hedjaz, and Dr. CHAIM WEIZMANN, representing and acting on behalf of the Zionist Organization. mindful of the racial kinship and ancient bonds existing between the Arabs and the Jewish people, and realizing that the surest means of working out the consummation of their national aspirations is through the closest possible collaboration in the development of the Arab State and Palestine, and being desirous further of confirming the good understanding which exists between them, have agreed upon the following Articles:

The Arab State and Palestine in all their relations and undertakings shall be controlled by the most cordial goodwill and understanding and to this end Arab and Jewish duly accredited agents shall be established and maintained in the respective territories. 

Immediately following the completion of the deliberations of the Peace Conference, the definite boundaries between the Arab State and Palestine shall be determined by a Commission to be agreed upon by the parties hereto. 

In the establishment of the Constitution and Administration of Palestine all such measures shall be adopted as will afford the fullest guarantee for carrying into effect the British Government's Declaration of the 2nd of November, 1917

All necessary measures shall be taken to encourage and stimulate immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale, and as quickly as possible to settle Jewish immigrants upon the land through closer settlement and intensive cultivation of the soil. In taking such measures and measures the Arab peasant and tenant farms shall be protected in their rights and shall be assisted in forwarding their economic development. 

No regulation nor law shall be made prohibiting or interfering in any way with the free exercise of religion; and further the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shell forever be allowed. No religious test shall ever be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. 

The Mohammedan Holy Places shall be under Mohammedan control. 

The Zionist Organization proposes to send to Palestine a Commission of experts to make a survey of the economic possibilities of the country, and to report upon the best means for its development. The Zionist Organization will place the aforementioned Commission at the disposal of the Arab State for the purpose of a survey of the economic possibilities of the Arab State and to report upon the best means for its development. The Zionist Organization will use Its best efforts to assist the Arab State in providing the means for developing the natural resources and economic possibilities thereof.

The parties hereto agree to act in complete accord and harmony on all matters embraced herein before the Peace congress. 

Any matters of dispute which my arise between the contracting parties shall be referred to the British Government for arbitration. 

Given under our hand at LONDON.

ENGLAND, the THIRD day of



Feisal ibn-Hussein.

House Resolution 2846: Recognition of Jerusalem as the 'undivided Capital of the State of Israel' Act (U.S. CONGRESS) 113th Congress, 2013-2015. Text as of July 26, 2013

HR 2846 IH - 113th CONGRESS - 1st Session

To transfer to Jerusalem the United States Embassy located in Tel Aviv.


Mr. FRANKS of Arizona (for himself, Mr. SHERMAN, Mr. LAMBORN, Mr. VARGAS, and Mr. GENE GREEN of Texas) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs


To transfer to Jerusalem the United States Embassy located in Tel Aviv.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

This Act may be cited as the ‘Recognition of Jerusalem as the Capital of the State of Israel Act’.

Congress finds the following:

(1) Jerusalem has been the eternal and undivided capital of the state of Israel for the past 3,000 years.

(2) The State of Israel was established on May 14, 1948, in the wake of World War II in order to serve as a homeland and place of refuge for the Jewish people.

(3) There has been an uninterrupted Jewish presence in the city of Jerusalem for 3,000 years and a Jewish majority since 1840. Since 1950, the city of Jerusalem has been the capital of the State of Israel.

(4) From 1948 to 1967, Jerusalem was a divided city and Israeli citizens of all faiths were not entitled to visit the holy sites, and Jews from other countries were restricted in their access to holy sites in the area controlled by Jordan. In 1967, the city of Jerusalem was reunited during the conflict known as the Six Day War, and since 1967, Jerusalem has been a unified city administered by Israel, and persons of all faiths have been guaranteed full access to the holy sites within the city.

(5) In 1990, Congress unanimously adopted Senate Concurrent Resolution 106, which declares that Congress ‘strongly believes that Jerusalem must remain an undivided city in which the rights of every ethnic religious group are protected’.

(6) In 1995, Congress overwhelmingly approved the Jerusalem Embassy Relocation Act (Public Law 104-45), requiring the establishment of the United States Embassy in Jerusalem not later than May 31, 1999.

(7) The United States maintains its embassy in the functioning capital in every country except in the State of Israel.

(8) Establishing sovereign claims according to the 1907 Hague Regulations under article 43, requires that ‘[t]he authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country.’.

(9) Israel has far exceeded the 1907 Hague Regulation as directed by international law. Israel has taken all measures to restore and ensure public order and safety in Jerusalem.

(10) Jerusalem has been far safer and more protected under Israel’s administration than under any previous authorities.

(11) Civil life is entirely present in Jerusalem, and all government institutions and related frameworks are also present, including the Knesset, the Bank of Israel, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Prime Minister’s and President’s offices, and the Supreme Court.

(12) The United States Government owns property in Tel Aviv that was acquired for the cost of $1.00 in 1957.

(13) The United States Government has allocated five properties in Jerusalem, totaling over of 40,000 square feet and 14 acres of land.

(14) The United States Government’s property located at 14 David Flusser Street in Jerusalem presents an ideal location for the United States Embassy to Israel. The Department of State completed construction of the property in 2010, and the six acre site is leased for 75 years.

It is the sense of Congress that--

(1) the United States should recognize the sovereign status of an undivided Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel;

(2) recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and transferring the United States Embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv will send a signal of United States commitment and resolve to Israel; and

(3) the Secretary of State should--

(A) transfer the United States Embassy in Tel Aviv, Israel, to 14 David Flusser Street, Jerusalem, Israel; and

(B) take such actions as are necessary to either re-purpose or sell at an appropriate market rate the United States Embassy in Tel Aviv, Israel, and, if the Embassy is sold, deposit in the Asset Management Account of the Department of State the proceeds from such sale.

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