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Timeline for the History of Judaism

History: Table of Contents | Ancient Jewish History | Modern Jewish History

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Note: Dates regarding biblical figures & events cannot be confirmed

Dawn of History
(3800-2001 BCE)

Adam & Eve created (Year 1 of Jewish calendar)
Seth born
Enosh born
ca. 3500
Chalcolithic Period, first settlement
Kenan born
Mehalalel born
Yered born
First confirmed settlement of Gaza at Tell as-Sakan
Enoch born
Methusaleh born
Lemech born
Adam dies
ca. 2800
Early Dynastic period (Akkad)
Noah born
ca. 2700-2400
Old Kingdom period (Egypt)
ca. 2500-2200
Ebla flourishes
ca. 2500
First houses built in Jerusalem
ca. 2300-2200
Priestess Enheduanna, first known author in the world
Shem born
The Flood
Middle Kingdom period (Egypt)

Ancient Israelite Religion
(2000-587 BCE)

2000-1750 Old Babylonian period
2000-1700 Israel's Patriarchal period
ca. 1900-1400 Old Assyrian period
1882 Terach born
1813 Abraham born
ca. 1850/1750/1700 Abraham & SarahIsaac & Ishmael, famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt
1800 First Jerusalem city wall built
ca. 1792-1750 Hammurabi
ca. 1750-1200 Hittite empire
1765 The Tower of Babel
1743 Origin of traditions of the "Abrahamic covenant"
1713 Isaac born; Abraham circumcises himself; Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
ca. 1700-1550 Hyksos in Egypt
1677 Isaac prepared as sacrifice; Sarah dies
1653 Jacob born
1638 Abraham dies
ca. 1600-1150 Kassite period (Babylonia)
1590 Isaac blesses Jacob instead of Esau.
ca. 1570-1085 New Kingdom period (Egypt)
1569 Jacob marries Leah
1565 Levi born
1562 Joseph born
1546 Joseph sold into slavery
1533 Isaac dies
1532 Joseph becomes viceroy of Egypt
1523 Jacob and his family join Joseph in Egypt
ca. 1500-1200 Ugaritic texts
1452 Joseph dies
1429 Egyptian enslavement of the Hebrews begins
ca. 1400-900 Middle Assyrian period
ca. 1400-1300 Amarna period (Egypt)
1393 Moses born.
1355 Joshua born.
1314 Moses sees the burning bush.
ca. 1300-1200 Mosaic period (Israel)
1280 Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah, Canaan Entry
1240 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem (Nablus), Joshua launches foray into Jerusalem(Joshua 10:2315:63)
ca. 1200 Sea Peoples invade Egypt and Syro-Palestine
ca. 1200-1050/1000 Period of the Judges (Israel)
ca. 1200-1000 Jerusalem is a Canaanite city
ca. 1150-900 Middle Babylonian period:
ca. 1106 Deborah judges Israel.
ca. 1100 The Philistines take over Gaza. They called it Philistia (from which the modern name Palestine is derived), and made it one of their civilization's most important cities.
ca. 1050-450 Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi)
ca. 1000-587 Monarchical period in Israel
ca. 1030-1010 Saul (transitional king)
ca. 1010-970 David conquers the Jebusites and makesJerusalem his capital
ca. 970-931 Solomon builds the First Temple on Mount Moriah
ca. 931 Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from Southern Kingdom (Judah)
931-913 Rehoboam rules Judah
931-910 Jeroboam I rules Israel, choses Shechem as his first capital, later moves it to Tirzah
913-911 Abijah rules Judah
911-870 Asa rules Juda
910-909 Nadab (son of Jeroboam) rules Israel
909-886 Baasha kills Nadab and rules Israel
900-612 Neo-Assyrian period
886-885 Elah, son of Baasha, rules Israel
885 Zimri kills Elah, but reigns just seven days before committing suicide, Omri chosen as King of Israel
885-880(?) War between Omri and Tibni
885-874 Omri kills Tibni, rules Israel
879 Omri moves capital of Israel from Tirzah to Samaria
874-853 Ahab, Omri's son, is killed in battle, Jezebel reigns as Queen. Athaliah, Ahab and Jezebel's daughter, marries Jehoram, crown prince of Judah
870-848 Jehoshapha rules Judah
853-851 Ahaziah, son of Ahab, rules Israel, dies in accident
750-725 Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah
722/721 Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed byAssyrians10 tribes exiled (10 lost tribes)
720 Ahaz, King of Judah dismantles Solomon's bronze vessels and places a private Syrian altar in the Temple
716 Hezekiah, King of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrian attempt to capture Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs leading to the city are stopped
701 Assyrian ruler Sennacherib beseiges Jerusalem
612-538 Neo-Babylonian (“Chaldean”) period
620 Josiah (Judean King) and “Deuteronomic Reforms”
ca. 600-580 Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel
587/586 Southern Kingdom (Judah) and First Templedestroyed-Babylonian exile
ca. 550 Judean Prophet “Second Isaiah”
541 First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers to rebuild the city and its walls. Seventy years of exile terminated. (Daniel 9Haggai 2:18-19)
539 Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonian Empire

After the Babylonian Exile
(538 BCE-70 CE)

538-333 B.C.E. Persian Period.
538 B.C.E. Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile).
520-515 B.C.E. Jerusalem ("Second") Temple rebuilt.
520 B.C.E. Judean Prophet Haggai.
500 B.C.E. The notion of a Messiah, a political/military-religious/moral leader, develops.
450-400 B.C.E. Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah.
ca. 450 B.C.E. Torah (Pentateuch = first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition as Scripture.
438 B.C.E. Achashverosh becomes king of Persia.
426 B.C.E. First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman's downfall and execution.
425 B.C.E. Haman's ten sons executed; Purim celebration.
424 B.C.E. Megillah recorded.
411 B.C.E. Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem.
333-63 B.C.E. Hellenistic (Greek) period.
333/331 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel.
ca. 320-168 B.C.E. Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleucids.
ca. 250 B.C.E. "Septuagint" translation of Torah into Greek.
ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
ca. 201 B.C.E. Prophets (second division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture
ca. 200 B.C.E.-135 C.E. Jewish Qumran community.
175 B.C.E. Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem, murdering many.
166-160 B.C.E. Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 C.E. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.

Rule of Rome
(230 BCE-400 CE)

ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
37-4 B.C.E. Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel).
34 B.C.E. Mark Antony deeds the city of Gaza to his lover, Queen Cleopatra.
37 B.C.E. Herod captures Jerusalem, has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean princess Mariamne I.
20 B.C.E. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C.E..
ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E. Joshua/Jesus “the Christ.”


Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages).
6 C.E. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea.
ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria.
ca. 30 C.E. Jesus is crucified.
36-64 C.E. Paul “the apostle” (Jewish “Christian”).
ca. 37-100 C.E. Josephus (Jewish leader, historian).
ca. 40 C.E. Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar).
ca. 50-125 C.E. Christian Testament (NT) writings.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating RabbinicJudaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of theSecond Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited underJudah the Prince.
200-254 Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter).
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim toSepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.


Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.


Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visitJerusalem.

240-276 Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I
250-330 Early development of Christian monasticism inEgypt.
263-339 Eusebius (Christian author, historian)
303 Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian.
To 311 Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews
312/313 Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.

Rabbinic Period of Talmud Development
(70 BCE-500 CE)

66-73 First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple,
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating RabbinicJudaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of theSecond Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited underJudah the Prince.
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim toSepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.

Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.

222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visitJerusalem.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act.
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of newsynagogues.

Babylonian Talmud recorded. After conqueringItaly in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.

Consolidation & Dominance of Christianity
(325-590 CE)

325 Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor), changes the date of Easter from Passoverand forbids Jews from owning Christian slaves or converting pagans to Judaism.
330 Jerusalem becomes part of Constantine's ByzantineEmpire.
ca. 325-420 Jerome (Christian author, translator).
339 Constantine forbids intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves, declaring death as the punishment.
354-430 Augustine (Christian author in North Africa).
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
380/391 Christianity becomes THE religion of Roman Empire.
401 Christianity takes root in Gaza thanks to Bishop Porphyry.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
415 St. Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, champions violence against the city's Jews and incites the Greeks to kill or expel them. Some Jews return within a few years, but many return only after theMuslims conquer Egypt.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of newsynagogues.
451 Christian Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon.
500 After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.
501 An earthquake hits Israel, partially destroying Acreand incuring damage as far east as Jersusalem.
511 Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra's forces defeated Zutra's army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews.
516 Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism, possibly as a rampart against the spread of Christianity. King Eleboas of Abyssinia, with the help of Justin I, later defeated Nuwas.
519 After Ravenna residents burnt down localsynagogues, Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric orders the Italian town to rebuild the synagogues at their own expense.
587 Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism, banning Jews from slave ownership, intermarriage and holding positions of authority. Recared also declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian.
570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad, Makkah.
590 Pope Gregory the Great formulates the official Papal policy towards Jews, objecting to forced baptism and tolerating them according to the previous council's regulations.

Development of Muhammad's Islamic Message
(570-1258 CE)

ca. 570-632 Muhammad ("the Prophet" of Islam).
ca. 610 Prophetic call and start of Quranic revelations.
614 Persian invasion, Jews allowed to controllJerusalem.
617 Persians change policy toward Jews, forbid them from living within three miles of Jerusalem.
622 The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina.
624-627 Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam. Eventually the Southern Arabian tribes are destroyed.
626 While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about 600 to chose between conversion and death. After spending all night praying, all but three or four Banu Kurarans are beheaded.
627-629 Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem. Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt, ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea. Heraclius' decree remained in effect until theMuslim conquest of Jerusalem.
630 Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba.
632 The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange for peace. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr, Tedma and Magna reached similar deals.
590-604 Pope Gregory the Great.
ca. 600-1300 Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim.
632-661 Muhammad dies, creating the four "rightly guided caliphs" of Islam.
634 Gaza becomes the first city in Palestine to be captured by Muslims. Many Christians and Jews remained despite the Muslim takeover.
637 Muslim forces capture Caesarea, forcing the city's estimated 100,000 Jews to follow the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly, not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from converting to Islam. The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification.
638 Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city under Islam.
661 Assassination of Ali (last of the four).
661-750 Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria).
669, 674 Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople.
680 Massacre of Ali's son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq).
685 Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and roads.
692 Dome of the Rock built on site of First and SecondTemples by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
711 Muslim Forces Attack Spain Successfully.
715 Al-Aqsa Mosque built, Jerusalem.
732 Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe.
750 Abbasid caliphate founded.
ca. 760 Karaism founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic Judaism).
762 Baghdad founded by Abbasids.
767 Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect that only believed in the literal Biblical writings and not the Oral law.
742-814 Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom, seeing Jews as an asset.
740-1259 Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over 500 years, defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis Khan.
750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty of Islam in Baghdad (Iraq)—the "golden age" of Islamic culture.
?-767 Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq).
710-795 Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths, Medina).
800 Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in "1001 Nights" style.
ca. 800-950 Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated.
807 Harun Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge.
825 Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes).
814-840 Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded his father as king, expanded his father's positive policies towards the Jews, like changing "market day" from Saturday (Shabbat) to Sunday.
855 Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad).
868 Palestine annexed to Egypt.
870, 875 Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths).
874 Shiite "twelvers" arise.
?-935 Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar).
882-942 Saadia Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage).
942 Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven centuries, primarily because of dissention with the Muslims. David ben-Zaccai held the postion.
922 Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi.
ca. 950-1150 “Golden Age” in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty).
969 Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University) by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
969 Caliph al-Aziz defeated the Turkish princes at Ramleh, marking the beginning of Fatamid rule over Eretz-Israel.
972 Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo.
ca. 1000 Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany, publishes a ban on bigamy. This marks the beginning of Ashkenazi (Franco-German) halachic creativity.
1001 Ibn al-Bawwab produces earliest exist Qur'an copy on paper, Baghdad.
990-1055 Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus of Granada and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary, Samuel Ibn Nagrela.
1008 Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine, pressured all non-Muslims to convert and forced all Jews to wear a "golden calf" around their necks.
1009 Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written.
1016 Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple Mount.
1021-1069 Messianic poet and philosopher, Solomon Ibn Gabirol.
1027 Samuel Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. He is the first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and symbolic of both the political power and literary creativity of Jews in Spain at the time.
1032 Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
1066 Final split ("schism") between Latin (Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian Churches: 1053/54 William the Conqueror (Norman) takes England.
1056 Abraham Ibn Daud: On Saumuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada.
1040-1105 Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): .
1058-1111 Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): .
1065-1173 Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveller and historian, who wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa'ot (Book of Travels).
1070 Rashi, a French-Jewish thinker, completes his commentaries on most parts of the Bible.
1070-1139 Poet and philiospher Moses Ibn Ezra.
1071 Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem.
1099 First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem.
1100 The Crusaders seize Gaza from the Fatimid Caliphs, returning it to Christian rule.
1181 Philip expels Jews from France.
1187 Salah al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule.
1192 Philip expands his kingdom and allows Jews to return, for a fee and under strict conditions.

Medieval Period in the West
(600-1500 CE)

610 Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored. Exiled Jews return to Byzantine Spain under Sesbut's successor, Swintilla.
614 Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city. At this time, aproximately 150,000 Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel.
617 The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle within a three mile radius ofJerusalem.
638 Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to live in Visogoth Spain, many Jews continue to live there.
638 Islamic conquest of Jerusalem.
682 Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews.
691 First account of Jews in England.
712 Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace, in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished.
722 In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo III of Constantinople decided his nation's weakness lay in its heterogenious population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well as the "New Christians." Most converted under Leo III clandestinely continued their Jewish practices.
1040 Birth of Rashi.
1066 In the wake of the Norman conquest of England, Jews left Normandy and settled in London and later in York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol and Lincoln.
1078 Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
1086-1145 The greatest Hebrew poet of his time, Judah Halevi.
1090 Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, capturedGranada and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo.
1095 Henry IV of Germany, who granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism.
1131 Birth of Rambam.
1171 In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder ((killing of a Christian child) and blood libel. The adult Jews of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children are forcibly baptized.
1210 Group of 300 French and English rabbis make aliyah and settle in Israel.
1215 The Church's Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between Jews and Christians. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge; sometimes a pointed hat.
1227-1274 Christian theologian, who called for the slavery of all Jews, Saint Thomas Aquinas.
1229 King Henry III of England forced Jews to pay half the value of thier property in taxes.
1242 Burning of the Talmud in Paris.
1244 Tartars capture Jerusalem.
1253 King Henry III of England ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly so that Christians passing by do not have to hear it. e also ordered that Jews may not employ Christian nurses or maids, nor may any Jew prevent another from converting to Christianity.
1254 French King Louis IX expelled the Jews fromFrance, ending the Tosaphists period. Most Jews went to Germany and further east.
1255 Seeing himself as the "master of the Jews," King Henry II of England transferred his rights to the Jews to his brother, Richard, for 5,000 marks.
1267 In a special session, the Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews. This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were forced to wear.
1267 Ramban (Nachmanides) arrives in Israel.
1275 King Edward of England banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He also forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an indentifying badge.
1282 The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
1285 Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. An additional 180 Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
1287 A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation.
1290 Bowing political pressure, English King Edward I expels the Jews from England. They were only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France, paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by the ship captains.
1306 Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France, with their property to be sold at public auction. Some 125,000 Jews are forced to leave.
1321 Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France. An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent.
1321 Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges.
1322 Charles IV of France expels all French Jews without the one year period he had promised them.
1348-1349 Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells. Despite the pleas of innocence of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction of over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities.
1348 Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children, expelling the city's other Jews. The city's Christian residents convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery.
1348 Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague.
1360 Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination. The king also confiscated his great wealth.
1385-1386 German Emperor Wenceslaus arrests Jews living in the Swabian League, a group of free cities in S. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the Jews of Strassburg after a community debate.
1386 Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property.
1389 After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the city's Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction of the city's synagogue and Jewish cemetery. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act, insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week.
1389 Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them.
1391 Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry, killing over 10,000 and destroying the Jewish quarter in Barcelona. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain, except for Granada, and destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca.
1391 King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be converted into churches.
1392 King Pedro I announces his compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX, protecting Jews from baptism. He extends this edict to Spanish Jewish refugees.
1415 Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict Jewish life completely.
1420 Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized without parental consent.
1420 All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Jews now only remain in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.
1422 Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.
1480 Inquisition established in Spain.

The Crusades
(1095-1258 CE)

1096 Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades.
1096 More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germanyin several different attacks.
May 3, 1096 Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders.
May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
1085-1140 Judah Halevi (Jewish author).
1099 Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalemand massacre tens of thousands of the city's Jews.
1100 Germans, including German Jews, migrate toPoland. It is seen as “the land of opportunity.”
1107 Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1109 Tiberias falls to the Crusaders.
1115 After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return.
1120 Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle inByzantium.
1124 Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there.
1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar).
1139 Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar.
1143 150 Jews killed in Ham, France.
1144 Jews in Norwich, England, are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence.
1160-1173 Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo.
1163 Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living inBaghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
1171 Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter.
March 16, 1190 Jews attacked, over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England.
1190 Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent.
1191 French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade, cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France, confiscates their property.
1194-1270 Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides).
1195 Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought.
1211 A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah.
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian).
1204 First synagogue built in Vienna, a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch, the "Badge of Shame.
1222 Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of "heretics".
1222 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
ca. 13th cen. The Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): .
1227 Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror).
ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain.
1232 The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict, the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and Rome.
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar).
1240-1292 Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia.
1243 First accusation of desecration of the Host (the wafers used is Christian Mass) - the blood libel - in Berlitz, Germany.
1244-1517 Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, andMamelukes.
1247 Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt.
1258 Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).

Transition & Rebuilding of Political Islam
(1258-1500 CE)

1258 Mongols sack Baghdad.
1260 Mongols led by Hulagu Khan overrun Gaza, they are beaten back by Egyptian Mamluk General Baibars. Gaza becomes the capital of a Mamluk Province.
1278 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
1286 Moses de Leon of Spain completes a commentary of the Torah. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism.
1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England.
1291 Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe.
1445 Gutenberg prints Europe's first book with movable type.
1453 Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople.
1492 End of Muslim states in Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.

Mamluk Rule
(1291-1516 CE)

1300-1517 Italian Renaissance.
1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France.
1328-1384 John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader).
14th century Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey.
1333 Casimir the Great takes power in Poland and brings with him a sympathetic attitude toward the Jews, who benfit as a result.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe and Jews are accused of poisoning Christian wells.
1336-1405 Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia.
1360 King Pedro of Portugal arrests and tortures to deathSamuel Ben Meir Abulafia. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia's lands and great wealth.
1400 Damascus sacked by Timurlane.
1424 Jewish physician, Y'en Ch'eng is given the surname "Chao" as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families.
1437-1509 Philosopher, financier and scholar, Don Isaac Abarbanel intercedes many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu'ot (Tower of Salvation).
1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints Europe's first book with movable type.
1447 Following a fire in Posen where the original charter (written by Casimir the Great) granted the Jews "privileges," Casimir IV renews all their rights and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.
1452-1515 Astronomer and historian, Abraham Zacuto creates tables used by Columbus. After the explusion of 1492, Zacuto went to Portugal where he developed the metal Astrolab used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1498 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century.
1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to OttomanMuslims.
1454 Casimir IV of Poland revokes the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignev. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir's defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1463 Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos.
1479-15 Isabella's severe anti-Jewish learnings influence Ferdinand and lead to the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
1486 First prayer book published in SoncinoItaly.
1488 The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in SoncinoItaly.
1492 Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.
1492 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, sending over 200,000 Jews fleeing: 137,000 Jews forced to leave Sicily.
1494 Polish King Jan Olbracht's orders Jews to leave to leave Crakow for Kazimierz after they are blamed for a large fire that destroyed part of the city.
1496 Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal.
1516 The closed Jewish Quarter in VeniceItaly, is dubbed the Geto Nuovo (New Foundry). "Geto" will later become the basis for the word "ghetto".
1516 The Ottoman's fight the Mamluks out of Gaza, Gaza is ruled for the next 100 years by the Ridwan family.
1505-1584 Kabbalist and author of "Lecha Dodi" (Come My Beloved), Solomon ben Moses Alkabetz.

Christian Reformation Period
(1517-1569 CE)

1510 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin.
1516 Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto, the most extreme segregation to which Jews had been submitted. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated.
1483-1546 Martin Luther.
1517 Luther posts "95 theses" in Wittenburg, Germany
1520-1579 Cracow Rosh Yeshiva whose major work was an adaptation of Caro's Shulchan Aruch to Europoean Jewry, Moses Isserles.
1525-1609 Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer, popular with Emperor Randolh II. Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague also created theGolem, a man from clay who protected the Jewish community.
1534 First Yiddish book published in CracowPoland.
1534-1572 Talmud and Kabbalah scholar, Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, given the name "The Ari" (The Lion).
1543 Luther writes "About the Jews and Their Lies,"considered the first modern anti-Semitic tract.
ca. 1500-1650 Protestant Christian Reformation.
1509-1564 John Calvin.
1516 Jewish ghetto instituted in Venice.
1526 The Prague Haggadah, which contains the oldest known printed Yiddush poem, is published.
1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdon.
1555 Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome.
1559 Pope Paul IV allows the first printing of the Zohar, a Jewish mystical text.
1567/1571 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law by Joseph Caro).published.
1569 Isaac Luria writes the Kabbalist in Safed. Luria's ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism.

Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire
(1500-1920 CE)

1517 Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I overEgypt.
  Ottoman Muslim rulers (later) claim the title "caliph".
1520-1566 Sulayman I, "the Magnificent," rules.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty inIran.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India.
1550-1619 Rabbi, preacher and biblical commentator known for his brilliant sermons calling for self improvement, Ephraim Solomon of Lunshits.
1550 Dr. Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled.
1553 Under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, later Pope Paul IV, the Talmud was confiscated and publicaly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy.
1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
1555 In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1555-1631 Talmudic commentator, author of Chidushei Halachot, Samuel Eliezer Aidles, also known as "Maharsha." .
1558 In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.
1585 First known Jew to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse (Ganz), lands on Roanoke Island.
1596-1650 Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): .
1564 In Brest Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector, is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and killed.
1566 Three months into his reign, Pope Pius V rejects Pope Pius IV leniency towards Jews and reinstates the restrictions of Pope Paul IV which forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1569 Brest Litovsk welcomes Jewish settlement. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4,000 to more than 50,000.
1586 Pope Sixtus V rejects Pope Gregory XIII policies and forbids Jews from living in the Papal states and to print the Talmud.
1587-1643 The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director of court of Mantua, Salamone de Rossi.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada, weakeningSpain and decreasing the reach of the Inquisition, espcially in the Netherlands.
1590 Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter of Posen burned while then gentile population watched and pillaged. 15 people died and 80 Torah scrolls were burned.
1591 Rabbi, encyclopedist, physician and pupil of Galileo, Jose Solomon Delmedigo wrote over 30 works in math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy and medicine.
1592 Esther Chiera, who held considerable influence in Sultan Murad III's court, was executed because of jealousy and the Sultan's desire for her assets.
1593 Pope Clement VIII expelled Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona.
1596 Official Yom Kippur services are held for the first time in Amsterdam, though not without controversy.
1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, was burned alive in Lisbon. His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity.
1605 A Jesuit missionary in China meets with Al T'Ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community.
1605-1657 Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic).
1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.
1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews," led a raid on a Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
1615 King Louis XIII of France decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
1615 The Guild, led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.
1616 The Bishop of Speyer, with the backing of Frederick's troops, readmitted the Jews to Worms.
1616 Holland's Prince Maurice of Orange allowed each each city to decide for itself whether to admit Jews. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.
1616 Jesuits arrives in Grodno, Poland and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.
1618-1638 Thity Years War between Catholics and Protestants centers around GermanyAustriaFrance and theNetherlands.
1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increased persecution against the Jews forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. (Many secretly practiced Judaism.).
1620 Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America.
1621 Sir Henry Finch, legal advisor to King James I, makes the first English call to restore the Jews to their homeland in his treatise The World's Great Restoration or Calling of the Jews.
1621-1663 Well-known commentator of the Shulchan Aruchand author of several other works, Shabbetai Ben Meir Hacohen.
1622-1629 Persian Jews are forced to convert to Islam.
1623-1662 Blaise Pascal (scholar).
1625 The Jews of Vienna were forced to move into a ghetto called Leopoldstadt.
1625 Pope Urban VIII forbids Roman Jews to erect gravestones.
1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish “messianic” leader).
1630-1703 Financier and founder of the Viennese Jewish community, Samuel Oppenheimer.
1632 Miguel and Isabel Rodreguese and five others were burned alive in front of the King and Queen of Spain after being discovered holding Jewish rites.
1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew).
1636 Rhode Island grants religious liberty to Jews.
1639 More than 80 New Christians (Jews who converted to Christianity) were burned at the stake after the Inquisition caught them holding regular Jewish services in Lima, Peru.
1641-1718 Shabbtai Ben Joseph the Bass, Author of Seftai Yesharim, the first bibliography of Hebrew books and biblical commentator. He also built a printing house in 1689, despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than 150 years.
1642 The first Jewish colony in the New World is established in Recife, Brazil.
1642 Chao Ying-Cheng helped rebuild the synagogue in Kai Fen after the Yellow River flooded the area. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits.
1648 Bogdan Chmelnitzki massacres 100,000 Jews in Poland.
1648 The Treaty of Westphalia brings victory to the Protestants.
1649 In the largest Auto de Fe ever held in the New World, 109 crypto-Jews were accused of Judaizing, several were burned alive.
1649 John Casimir, upon ascending the Polish throne, negotiates a truce with Cosack leader and murderer of thousands of Jews, Bogdan Chmelnitzki.
1654 Arrival of 23 Jews from Brazil in New Amsterdam (New York, America).
1655 Dutch West India Company allows Jewish settlers to reside permanently in New Amsterdam.
1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.
1657 The first Jews gain the rights of citizens in America.
1670 Jews expelled from Vienna.

Jewish Contemporary Period
(1700-1917 CE)

1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of JewishHasidism).
1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250.
1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher).
1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin.
1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies.
ca. 1750 Wahhabi "fundamentalist" movement arises inIslam.
1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England.
1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York.
1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate aSephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Island architect Peter Harrison.
1768-1828 "Father of Reform [Judaism]," Israel Jacobson.
1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, "Edict over the Hebrew," suppressing the Jewish religion.
1775 Frances Salomon elected to South CarolinaProvisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America.
1776 United States Declaration of Independence.
1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue.
1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish "enlightenment" scholar).
1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."
1765 Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe "Act of Faith," a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake.
1769-1821 Napoleon (France).
1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed.
1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges.
1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz.
1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom.
1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat,Mordechai Manuel Noah.
1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
1789 French Revolution.
1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel.
1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York's Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington's inaugural.
1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty.
September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas.
1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia.
1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews.
1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt.
1799 Napoleon's army moves from Egypt, capturingGaza and Haifa and gets as far north as Akko which is successfully defended by the British.
1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala.
1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina.
1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli.
1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York.
1811-1884 "Brains of the Confederacy," Judah P. Benjamin.
March 11, 1812 Prussia's Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews.
1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist.
1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew.
1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte
March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews.
1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx.
mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.)
1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women's charitable society in Philadelphia.
1819-1900 Head of the American Reform movement and founder of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Isaac Mayer Wise.
1820 (ended in 1834) A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition.
1821-1891 Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon Pinsker.
1823 The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent to foreign colonization.
1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York.
1824 Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston.
1825 Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement to colonize New York's Grand Island for Jewish refugees.
1826 In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia, Spain, a poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism.
1827 Reinterpretation of Russia's Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12.
1830 French occupation of Muslim Algiers.
1830 German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial numbers.
November 30, 1830 Greece grants citizenship to Jews.
1830-1903 Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille Pissarro.
1831 Louis Philippe of France grants state support to synagogues.
1831 Belgium grants citizenship to Jews.
1831 Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since 1655, they are finally given the right to vote.
1831-1896 Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA),Baron De Hirsch.
1832 Canada grants Jews political rights.
1833 The first book by an American Jewish woman,Penina Moise's Fancy's Sketch Book, published in South Carolina.
1837 An earthquake in Tzfat and Tiberias kills four thousand people and damages monuments and archeological sites.
1837 First Passover Haggadah printed in America.
1838 Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia.
1840 Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel.
1840 First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus,Syria.
1840 The first Hebrew printing press in India is established.
1840s The use of the word "Jew" as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. "To Jew" means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage.
1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress.
1843 B'nai B'rith is organized, the first secular Jewish organization in the United States.
1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
1845 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of thePentateuch from the Hebrew into English.
1845-1934 Zionist leader Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
1847 London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament, Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith.
1847-1915 Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement, Solomon Schechter.
1848 In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced.
1849-1887 American poet whose "New Colossus" was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty: Emma Lazerus.
1852 Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants.
1852 The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished.
1852-1870 Reign of Napoleon III of France.
1853 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bibleinto English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation of the Pentateuch.
1855 First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE.
1856 Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American slavery from his pulpit.
1858 Edgar Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery.
1859-1916 "Yiddish Mark Twain," famed novelist, Shalom Alechem Rabinowitz.
1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918) Kaiser William II of Germany.
1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1860 Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities.
1860-1904 Father of Zionism, Theodore Herzl.
1860-1911 Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies, Gustav Mahler.
1860-1945 Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman's Zionist Organization.
1860 Morris Raphall is the first rabbi to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress.
1861 Norway allows Jews to enter the country.
1861 Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level office in any American government.
1861-1865 1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000 for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels in the American Civil War.
1861-1936 Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism,Nahum Sokolow.
1862 Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem.
1862 General Ulysses S. Grant expels Jewish civiliansissues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews "as a class" from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department.
1862 Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.
1864 Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state.
1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
1866 Switzerland, a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal rights only after threats by the United States, France and Britain.
1867 First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia.
1867 The original Ku Klux Klan is organized to maintain "white supremacy".
1867 Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews.
1867 German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular book, The Victory of Judaism over Germanism. He coins the word "antisemitism" so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society.
1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain — and the first prime minister of Jewish descent in Europe.
1869 Suez Canal opens.
1869 Italy grants emancipation to Jews.
1870 Sweden grants citizenship to Jews.
1870 Ghettos abolished in Italy.
1870 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished.
1871 First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published.
1871 The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published.
1871 Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews.
January 12, 1871 A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality.
1873 Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
1873-1934 Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement, authored "In City of Slaughter," "El Ha Tsippor-To the Bird" and "Metai Midbar-Dead of the Desert,Hayim Nahman Bialik.
1873-1956 Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin (Theresienstadt) concentration campLeo Baeck.
1874 Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship under the new constitution.
1874-1926 Eric Weiss, better known as Harry Houdini, the master escape artist, was born into an orthodox home.
19th-20th centuries Young Men's Hebrew Associations in New York and Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than 120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next 15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers.
1874-1952 Statesman and scientist Chaim Weizmann.
1875 Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati.
1877 New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality.
1878 Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in 1883 after the First Aliyah.
1878 The antisemitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity.
1879-1955 Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of the special and general theory of relativity Albert Einstein.
1880-1920 Zionist leader Joseph Trumpeldor.
1880-1939 Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, HaganahJewish LegionIrgun,BetarRevisionist PartyVladimir Jabotinsky.
1881 Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire.
1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews.
1881 French occupation of Muslim Tunisia.
1881 Samuel Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor.
1881 May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia.
1881 The word "pogrom" enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property.
1882 British occupation of Muslim Egypt.
1882 First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu, founded in Kharkov Russia.
1882 Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine, but not settle.
1882 Hibbat Tzion societies founded.
1884 First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement.
1884 Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish pilgrims.
1885 Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform.
1885-1962 Scientist who developed the theory on the nature of the atom, rescued from Nazi GermanyNeils Bohr.
1885 Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first Jew in England's in the House of Lords. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords.
1886-1929 Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig.
1886 Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York.
1886-1973 Statesman David Ben-Gurion.
1887 Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York and, later, becomes the intellectual center of theConservative movement.
1887-1990 Famous artist Marc Chagall.
1888 Jewish Publication Society of America is founded to publish English books of Jewish interest.
1888 European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do not do so en masse.
1888-1970 Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel Joseph Agnon.
1889 The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants.
April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria.
1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement.
1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine.
1891 Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle 3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in other countries.
1892 Workmen's Circle established to promote Yiddishist and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers.
1892 American Jewish Historical Society established.
1892 Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.
1893 National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago.
1894 French general staff officer Alfred Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil's Island in the Dreyfus Affair.
1894 Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode of the life of Tevye the Dairyman.
1894-1917 Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the anti-Semitic "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," Nicholas II.
1894-1943 Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi).
1895 Lillian Wald founds Henry Street Settlement.
1896 Theodor Herzl publishes Der JudenstaatThe Jewish State (Zionism): .
1897 First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist OrganizationFounded.
1897 Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded in Russia.
1897 Abraham Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper,Jewish Daily Forward in New York.
1897 The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins training Orthodox rabbis.
1898 Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes with that of the Reform movement's Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC).
1898-1936 Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century, whose works include "Rhapsody in Blue," George Gershwin.
1898-1978 Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir.
1898 Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J'Accuse.
1898 A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem.
1899-1902 The term "concentration camp" is coined by the British during the Boer War to denote holding areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s).
1899 Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and promoted to Major.
1899 Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement.
1900-1990 American composer and conductor best known for "Appalachian Spring," "Billy the Kid" and "Rodeo,"Aaron Copland.
early 20th century Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement.
1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States.
1901 The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) - The Jewish National Fund.
1902 Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel,AltneulandOld-New Land, a vision of the Jewish State.
1902 Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, etc.
1902-1979 Composer and partner of Oscar Hammerstein II(1895-1960), known for "Oklahoma!" and" South Pacific," Richard Rogers.
1902 Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Conservative Judaism's rabbinical seminary.
1903 British Government proposes "Uganda Scheme," rejected by the Sixth Zionist Congress.
1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia.
1903 Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew to serve in the U.S. Cabinet.
1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States.
1904-1914 Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1905 Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv.
1905 Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism.
1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally.
early 20th century Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is based on his storyTevye's Daughters.
1906 First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa andBezalel school founded in Jerusalem.
1907 Physicist Albert A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize.
1907 Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna Academy of Art.
1908 Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum).
1908 Revolution by "young Turks" depose Sultan Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman.
1908 Turkey grants Jews political rights.
1908 Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina.
1909 Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist, converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest mail-order house in the world.
1908-1914 Second Yemenite Aliyah.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, founded.
1909 Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
1909 Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
1911-1913 Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis Trial (Russia).
1911-1986 Hall of Fame baseball player Hank Greenberg.
1911 A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York's Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly Jews.
1911 Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, "Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance." Palestinian newspaper Filastin begins addressing its readers as "Palestinians" and warns them about Zionism.
1913 In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy. After two years followed by a "show trial," Beilis is acquitted.
1912 United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia because of Russia's refusal to honor passports of Jewish Americans.
1912 Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization.
1912 Haifa's Technion is founded.
1912 Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz.
1912 12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German parliament) are Jewish.
1913 Trial of Leo Frank in Atlanta leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith.
1913 Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America (later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism).
1913 First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.
1913-1993 Commander of the Etzel, statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin.
1914 Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established.
1914-1919 World War I.
1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo prompting World War One.
1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes.
1914 American Jewish Relief Committee established to distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined with other Jewish relief organizations to become the Joint Distribution Committee.
1914 The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side of Germany.
1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho - the first Jew to win the governorship of an American state.
1915 MacMahon-Hussein correspondence.
1915 Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British army.
1915 Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron Aaronsohn formNILI (Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited to spy on the Turks for the British.
1915 The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in the wake of the Leo Frank Affair.
1915-1981 Moshe Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of Defense.
1915 Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch mob.
1915-2005 Arthur Miller, American playwright whose works include, "Death of a Salesman," The Crucible" and "A View From the Bridge." .
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1916 Louis Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court.
1916 Germany accuses Jews of evading active service in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher than their population ratio.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought inTransjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.
1917 British forces land on the beaches of Gaza during WW1.

Unrest & Realignment in the Middle East
(1914-1918 CE)

1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought inTransjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 British General Allenby captured Jerusalem from the Turks, ending Ottoman rule.
1918 Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.

British Rule in Palestine
(1918-1947 CE)

.. ..... .
Treaty of Versailles formally ends Word War I. Out of an estimated 1.5 million Jewish soldiers in all the armies, approximately 170,000 were killed and over 100,000 cited for valor.
Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.
American Jewish Congress is founded.
Nov. 1918
Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates.
Nahum Zemach founds the Moscow-basedHabimah Theater which receives acclaim for “The Dybbuk.”
Jan. 5, 1919
The German Workers' Party (DAP) is founded in Munich; Adolf Hitler joins the Party nine months later.
Jewish educational summer camping is launched in the United States with what came to be known as the Cejwin Camps.
Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored toOttoman rule.
First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
Romania grants citizenship to Jews.
Egyptian revolution.
Chaim Weizmann heads Zionist delegation at Versailles Peace Conference.
Third Aliyah, mainly from Russia.
Emir Faisel wrote a letter to Felix Frankfurtersupporting Zionism, “We Arabs...wish the Jews a most hearty welcome.”
League of Nations established in an effort to prevent further wars.
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah(Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv)to conduct its affairs.
Keren Hayesod created for education, absorbtion and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel.
Chaim Weizmann elected president of the World Zionist Organization.
Fall of Tel Hai to Arab attackers; Joseph Trumpeldor and five men under his command killed.
Mandate for the Land of Israel given over to Britain on the condition that the Balfour Declaration be implemented, San Remo Conference.
Sir Herbert Samuel, British statesman, appointed High Commissioner of Palestine.
Henry Ford's newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, begins publishing its anti-Semitic propaganda, including the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Feb. 24, 1920
The first mass meeting of the National Socialist Party (NSDAP) takes place at Munich's Hofbräuhaus.
April 1, 1920
Adolf Hitler is honorably discharged from the German Army.
The San Remo Conference awards administration of the former Turkish territories of Syria and Lebanonto France, and PalestineTransjordan, and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to Britain.
Second and third Palestinan National Congress' held.
The Times of London pronounces the PProtocols of the Elders of Zion a forgery.
U.S. immigration laws “reformed” to effectively exclude Eastern European Jews and other immigrants. Further restrictions imposed in 1924.
Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convenes inJerusalem, decides to send delegation to London to explain case against Balfour.
The Allied Reparations Committee assesses German liability for World War I at 132 billion gold marks (about $31 billion).
The NSDAP, also known as the Nazi Party, establishes the Sturmabteilung (SA; Storm Troopers; Brown Shirts).
Arab riots in Jaffa and other cities.
Völkischer Beobachter (People's Observer), the official National Socialist newspaper, begins publication.
July 29, 1921
Adolf Hitler becomes the Nazi Party's first chairman with dictatorial powers.
Kingdom of Iraq established.
First moshav, Nahalal, founded in the Jezreel Valley.
Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya'akov Meir are elected the first two cheif Rabbis of Eretz-Israel.
Famous Hungarian Jewish poet and paratrooper who fought in WWII, Hannah Szenes (Senesh).
Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations.
Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area, forbidding Jewish immigration, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-à-vis Mandate authorities set up.
Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, the cradle of theReconstructionist movement.
The United States Congress and President Harding approve the Balfour Declaration.
Supreme Muslim Council created under the jurisdiction of the British government to centralize religious affairs and institutions, but is corrupted by the overzealous Husseini family who used it as an anti-Jewish platform.
Benito Mussolini establishes a Fascist government in Italy.
Harvard's president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation.
League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine.
First British census of Palestine shows total population 757,182 (11% Jewish).
Fifth Palestinian National Congress in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists.
Jungsturm Adolf Hitler (Adolf Hitler Boys Storm Troop) and Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler (Shock Troop Adolf Hitler) are established. The latter will form the nucleus of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
June 24, 1922
Walther Rathenau, Jewish foreign minister ofGermany, is assassinated by members of Organisation Consul, a clandestine, right-wing political organization led by Captain Hermann Ehrhardt.
France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr after an economically broken Germany is unable to meet the annual installment of its war-reparations payments designed to pay off Germany's $31 billion war debt.
March 1923
The Schutzstaffel (SS; Protection Squad) is established. It is initially a bodyguard for Hitler but will later become an elite armed guard of the Third Reich.
Palestine constitution suspended by British because of Arab refusal to cooperate.
Overthrow of Ottoman Muslim rule by “young Turks” (Kemal Ataturk) and establishment of secular state.
Sixth Palestinian national Congress held in Jaffa.
The first issue of the pro-Nazi, antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker) is published in Nuremberg, Germany. Its slogan is "Die Juden sind unser Unglück" ("The Jews are our misfortune"), a phrase picked up from Heinrich von Treitschke.
Nov. 8-11, 1923
Hitler's so-called “Beer Hall Putsch” takeover attempt at Munich fails, temporarily rattling the National Socialist Party and leading to Hitler's arrest in Bavaria, Germany.
Technion, first institute of technology, founded inHaifa.
Fourth Aliyah, mainly from Poland.
Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation. The first Hillel House opens at the University of Illinois, offers religious and social services.
Caliphate officially abolished.
May 11, 1924
The first conference of the General Zionistmovement is held in Jerusalem.
May 14, 1924
Ultra-Orthodox Jews found an agricultural settlement between Ramat Gan and Petah Tikva: Bnei- Brak.
The United States Congress passes the Immigration Restriction Act, which effectively bans immigration to the U.S. from Asia and Eastern Europe.
July 1924
While in prison, Hitler begins work on Mein Kampf.
Pahlevi dynasty in Persia (“Iran”: 1935).
Edna Ferber is the first American Jew to win Pulitzer Prize in fiction.
Palestinian National Congress meets in Jaffa.
March 24, 1925
Publication of the pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic newspaperDer Stürmer resumes after being banned by the Weimar government in November 1923.
April 26, 1925
Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany.
France proclaims Republic of Lebanon.
Warner Brothers produces drama of Jewish assimilation, "The Jazz Singer," the first film with sound.
Britain recognizes independence of Transjordan.
Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened inJerusalem; established a new forty-eight member executive committee.
Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York.
2,000 Arabs attack Jews praying at the Kotel on the9th of Av. Arabs view British refusal to condemn the attacks as support.
Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
Anne Frank, Holocaust victim whose diary, written during the Nazi Occupation became famous.
Fifth Aliyah, from Germany.
Hope-Simpson report, predecessor to PassfieldWhite Paper, recommends and end to all Jewish immigration to Eretz-Israel.
Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration.
Salo Wittmayer Baron joins the faculty of Columbia University, his is the first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States.
Etzel (the Irgun), Jewish underground organization, founded.
Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish).
The Nahum Zemach-founded Moscow-based Habimah Theater which received acclaim for "The Dybbuk" moves to Eretz-Israel.
'Abd al-Aziz Al Saud proclaims the Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia.
British Mandate over Iraq terminated, Iraq gains independence.
Discovery of oil in Bahrain.
1932 Herbert Lehman was elected New York's first Jewish governor; from that time on, Jews formed a pact with the Democratic Party.
First Maccabia athletic games take place with representatives from 14 countries.
German Chancellor von Papen persuaded President von Hindenburg to offer Hitler the chancellorship.
Formation of Istiqlal Party as first constituted Palestinian-Arab political party; Awni Abdul-Hadi elected president.
Concession agreement signed between Saudi government and Standard Oil of California (SOCAL). Prospecting begins. SOCAL assigns concession to California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (CASOC).
The American Jewish Congress declares a boycott on German goods to protest the Nazi persecution of Jews.
Assassination of Chaim Arlozorov.
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
Germany begins anti-Jewish boycott.
Cardinal Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, signed the Hitler Concordat; whereby the Vatican accepted National Socialism.
Albert Einstein, upon visiting the United States, learns that Hitler had been elected and decided not to return to Germany, takes up position at Princeton.
Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem to protest British "pro-Zionist" policies.
In Afghanistan, two thousand Jews are expelled from towns and forced to live in the wilderness.
American Jews cheer Detroit Tigers' Hank Greenberg when he refuses to play ball on Yom Kippur. In 1938, with five games left to the season, Greenberg's 58 home runs are two shy of Babe Ruth's record. When several pitchers walk him rather than giving him a shot at the record, many believe major league baseball did not want a Jew to claim that place in America's national sport.
Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws.
Hakibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement is founded.
Regina Jonas was ordained by Liberal (Reform) Rabbi Max Dienemann in Germany, becoming the first woman rabbi.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky founds the New Zionist Organization.
Official establishment of the Palestine Arab Party inJerusalemJamal al-Husseini elected president.
Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
Supported by the Axis powers, the Arab Higher Committee encourages raids on Jewish communities in Eretz-Israel.
1936 Texaco buys 50% interest in California Arabian Standard Oil Co.'s concession.
Leon Blum becomes the first Jew elected premier of France, enacts many social reforms.
The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements(Tel Amel) Nir David is erected.
Syria ratifies the Franco-Syrian treaty; France grants Syria and Lebanon independence.
World Jewish Congress convened in Geneva.
Peel Commission investigated Arab riots, concluded Arab claims were "baseless".
Reform Jewish Columbus Platform.
British declare Arab Higher Committee in Palestine illegal and Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria.
The Peel Commission recommends the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs.
Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion accept partition plan, despite fierce opposition at the 20th Zionist Congress.
John Woodhead declares partition unworkable after Arab riots.
Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform.
1938 Dammam Well No. 7 discovers commercial quantities of oil. Barge exports to Bahrain.
1938 Oil discovered in Kuwait.
Nov. 9, 1938
Kristallnacht — German Jewish synagogues burned down.
Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews.
The Dominican Republic is the only country out of 32 at the Evian Conference willing to help Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany.
Sept. 29, 1938
Chamberlain declares "peace in our time" after allowing Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in theMunich Agreement.
Catholic churches ring bells and fly Nazi flags to welcom Hitler's troops in Austria.
Hershel Grynszpan, 17, a German refugee, assassinates Ernst von Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy in Paris.
More than 100,000 Jews march in an anti-Hitler parade in New York's Madison Square Garden.
1939 First tanker-load of oil is exported aboard D.G. Scofield.
President Roosevelt appoints Zionist and Jewish activist Felix Frankfurter to the Supreme Court.
Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the United States.
Jewish songwriter Irving Berlin introduces his song "God Bless America." He also wrote "White Christmas".
Nazis establish ghettos in Poland.
British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10,000 Jews to form Jewish units in the British army.
British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine.
British and France guarantee Syrian independence.
Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) or Stern Gangunderground movement formed.
May 15, 1941
Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews.
Nazi leaders refine the "Final Solution" -- genocide of the Jewish people -- at Wannsee Conference.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Palmach parachutes into enemy lines in Europe.
British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus.
Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U.S. in 1941, coins the term genocide to describe the Nazi extermination of European Jews.
Zionist Biltmore Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating a "Jewish Commonwealth" in Palestine and organizing a Jewish army.
1944 CASOC renamed Arabian American Oil Co.(Aramco).
Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
FDR establishes War Refugee Board. For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late.
Camp for Jewish war refugees is opened at Oswego, New York.
International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg.
Bess Myerson becomes the first Jewish woman to win the Miss America Pageant.
Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasizing Arab character of Palestine, signed in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan, and Yemen.
United Nations established.
President Truman asks Britain to allow 100,000 Jews into Palestine.
Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine.
March 22, 1945
Two convicted members of the Stern Gang hanged for Murder of Lord Moyne in Cairo prison.
January 19, 1946
Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police..
January 20, 1946
Jewish underground members launched an attack against the British-controlled Givat Olga Coast Guard Station located between Tel Aviv and Haifa. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January 18. British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3,000 Jews and held 148 in custody..
April 25, 1946
Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1,200 suspects..
June 24, 1946
The Irgun radio "Fighting Zion" wams that three kidnapped British officers are held as hostages for two Irgun members, Josef Simkohn and Issac Ashbel facing execution as well as 31 Irgunmembers facing trial..
June 27, 1946
Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm..
June 29, 1946
British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested. .
July 1, 1946
British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. 2659 men and 59 women were detained fo the three day operation in which 27 settlements were searched. Four were killed and 80 were injured..
July 3, 1946
Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. General Sir Alan Cunningham commuted to life imprisonment the death sentences of Josef Simkhon and lssac Ashbel,Irgun members.
July 4, 1946
Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Warburton and A. Taylor who had been kidnapped by Irgun on June 18 and held as hostages for the lives of Simkohn and Ashbel, were released in Tel Aviv unharmed. At this time, Irgun issued a declaration of war against the British claiming that they had no alternative but to fight. .
July 22, 1946
The west wing of the King David Hotel inJerusalem which housed British Military Headquarters and other governmental offices was destroyed at 12:57 PM by explosives planted in the cellar by members of the Irgun terrorist gang. By the 26 of July, the casualties were 76 persons killed, 46 injured and 29 still missing in the rubble. The dead included many British, Arabs and Jews. .
July 24, 1946
London. The British government released a White Paper that accuses the HaganahIrgun and Stern gangs of "a planned movement of sabotage and violence" under the direction of the Jewish Agency and asserts that the June 29 arrest of Zionist leaders was the cause of the bombing.
July 28, 1946
The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated "cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts." The order states that this will punish "the race . . . by striking at their pockets and showing our contempt for them." .
July 29, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv raided a workshop making bombs..
July 30, 1946
Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20,000 British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators.
July 31, 1946
A large cache of weapons, extensive counterfeiting equipment and $1,000,000 in counterfeit Government bonds were discovered in Tel Aviv's largest synagogue. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3,200 illegal Jewish immigrants. .
August 2, 1946
British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining 500 persons for further questioning..
August 12, 1946
The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention. Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a "minority of Zionist extremists" with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem..
August 12, 1946
Two ships carrying a total of 1,300 Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units. The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with 500 Jews on board.
August 13, 1946
Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1,000 persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1,300 illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus. Another ship with 600 illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. .
August 26, 1946
British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport "Empire Rival" last week. Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center..
August 29, 1946
Jerusalem. the British Government announced the commutation to life imprisonment of the death sentences imposed on 18 Jewish youths convicted of bombing the Haifa railroad shops..
August 30, 1946
British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama.
Sept. 8, 1946
Jewish underground members cut the Palestine railroad in 50 places..
Sept. 9, 1946
Tel Aviv. two British officers were killed in an explosion in a public building..
Sept. 10, 1946
British troops imposed a curfew and arrested 101 Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan. Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest..
Sept. 14, 1946
Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested..
Sept. 15, 1946
Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. .
October 2, 1946
British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun. .
October 6, 1946
Jerusalem. An RAF man was killed by gunfire..
October 8, 1946
Two British soldiers were killed when their truck detonated a kind mine outside Jerusalem. A leading Arab figure was wounded in a similar mine explosion in Jerusalem and more mad mines were found near Government House..
October 31, 1946
The British Embassy in Rome was damaged by a bomb, believed to have been phased by Jewish underground members. Irgun took responsibility for the bombing on November 4..
November 3, 1946
Two Jews and two Arabs were killed in clashes between Arabs and a group of Jews attempting to establish a settlement at Lake Hula in northern Palestine. .
November 5, 1946
British authorities released the following eight Jewish Agency leaders from the Latrun concentration camp where they had been held since June 29: Moshe Shertok, Dr. Issac Greenbaum, Dr. Bernard Joseph, David Remiz, David Hacohen, David Shingarevsky, Joseph Shoffman and Mordecai Shatter. A total of 2,550 Haganahsuspects have also been released as well as 779 Jews arrested in the wake of the King David bombing. .
November 7, 1946
Railroad traffic was suspended hr 24 hours throughout Palestine following a fourth Irgun attack on railway facilities in two days.
November 9-13, 1946
Nineteen persons, eleven British soldiers and policemen and eight Arab constables, were killed in Palestine during this period as Jewish underground members, using land mines and suitcase bombs, increased their attacks on railroad stations, trains and even streetcars. .
Nov. 14, 1946
London. The Board of Deputies of British Jews condemned Jewish underground groups who threatened to export their attacks to England. .
Nov. 18, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv attacked Jews, assaulting many and firing into houses. Twenty Jews were injured in fights with British troops following the death on November 17 of three policemen and an RAF sergeant in a land mine explosion..
Nov. 20, 1946
Five persons were injured when a bomb exploded in the Jerusalem tax office. .
Dec. 2-5, 1946
Ten persons, including six British soldiers, were killed in bomb and land-mine explosions. .
Dec. 3, 1946
A member of the Stern Gang was killed in an aborted hold-up attempt. .
Dec. 26, 1946
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Nathanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with nearly $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. These raids signaled an end to a two-week truce during the World Zionist Congress..
Partition of India and Pakistan.
January 1, 1947
Dov Gruner was sentenced to hang by a British military court for taking part in a raid on the Ramat Gan police headquarters in April of 1946. .
January 2, 1947
Jewish underground staged bombings and machine gun attacks in five cities. Casualties were low. Pamphlets seized warned that the Irgun had again declared war against the British. .
January 4, 1947
Jerusalem. British soldiers have been ordered to wear sidearms at all times and were forbidden to enter any cafe or restaurant. .
January 5, 1947
Eleven British troops were injured in a hand grenade attack on a train carrying troops to Palestine. The attack took place near Benha, 25 miles from Cairo..
January 8, 1947
British police arrested 32 persons suspected of being members of the Irgun's "Black Squad" in raids on Rishomel Zion and Rehoboth. .
January 12, 1947
One underground member drove a truck filled with high explosives into the central police station and exploded it, killing two British policemen and two Arab constables and injuring 140 others, and escaped. This action ended a 10-day lull in the violence and the Stern Gang took the credit for it. .
January 14, 1947
Yehudi Katz is sentenced to life in prison by aJerusalem court for robbing a bank in Jaffa in September of 1946 to obtain funds for the underground..
January 22, 1947
Sir Harry Gumey, Chief Secretary, stated that the British administration was taxing Palestine $2,400,000 to pay for sabotage by the Jewish underground groups. .
January 22, 1947
Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones informed the House of Commons 73 British subjects were murdered by underground members in 1946 and "no culprits have been convicted." .
January 27, 1947
London. Britain's conference on Palestine, boycotted by the Jews, reconvened. Jamal el Husseini, Palestine Arab leader, declared that the Arab world was unalterably opposed to partition as a solution to the problem. The session then adjourned..
January 29, 1947
London. It was officially announced that the British Cabinet decided to partition Palestine. .
January 29, 1947
Irgun forces released former Maj. H. Collins, a British banker, who they kidnaped on January 26 from his home. He had been badly beaten. On January 28, the Irgun released Judge Ralph Windham, who had been kidnapped in Tel Aviv on January 27 while trying a case. These men had been taken as hostages for Dov Bela Gruner, an Irgunmember under death sentence. The British High Commissioner, Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Cunningham, had threatened martial law unless the two men were returned unharmed. .
January 31, 1947
General Cunningham ordered the wives and children of all British civilians to leave Palestine at once. About 2,000 are involved. This order did not apply to the 5,000 Americans in the country..
February 3, 1947
The Palestine Govemment issued a 7-day ultimatum to the Jewish Agency demanding that it state "categorically and at once" whether it and the supreme Jewish Council in Palestine will call on the Jewish community by February 10 for "cooperation with the police and armed forces in bringing to justice the members of the terrorist groups." This request was publicly rejected by Mrs. Goldie Meyerson, head of the Jewish Agency's political department. .
February 4, 1947
British Oistrict Commissioner James Pollock disclosed a plan for military occupation of three sectors of Jerusalem and orders nearly 1,000 Jews to evacuate the Rehavia, Schneler and German quarters by noon, February 6.
February 5, 1947

The Vaad Leumi rejected the British ultimatum while the Irgun passed out leaflets that it was prepared to fight to the death against the British authority.

The first 700 of some 1,500 British women and children ordered to evacuate Palestine leave by plane and train for Egypt. British authorities, preparing for military action, order other families from sections of Tel Aviv and Haifa which will be turned into fortified military areas.

February 9, 1947
British troops removed 650 illegal Jewish immigranS from the schooner "Negev" at Haifa and after a struggle forced them aboard the ferry "Emperor Haywood" for deportation to Cyprus. .
February 14, 1947
The British administration revealed that Lt. Gen. Sir Evelyn Barker, retiring British commander in Palestine, had confirmed the death sentences of three Irgun members on February 12 before leaving for England. The three men, Dov Ben Rosenbaum, Eliezer Ben Kashani and Mordecai Ben Alhachi, had been sentenced on February 10 to be hanged for carrying firearms. A fourth, Haim Gorovetzky, received a life sentence because of his youth. Lt. Gen. G. MacMillian arrived in Jerusalem on February 13 to succeed Gen. Barker. .
February 15, 1947
The Sabbath was the setting for sporadic outbreaks of violence which included the murder of an Arab in Jaffa and of a Jew in B'nai B'rak, the kidnapping of a Jew in Petah Tikvah and the burning of a Jewish club in Haifa.
March 9, 1947
Hadera. A British army camp was attacked..
March 10, 1947
Haifa. A Jew, suspected of being an informer, was murdered by Jewish underground members..
March 12, 1947
The British Army pay corps was dynamited inJerusalem and one soldier killed. .
March 12, 1947
British military units captured most of the 800 Jews whose motor ship "Susanne" ran the British blockade and was beached north of Gaza on this date. A British naval escort brought the "Ben Hecht," the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation's first known immigrant ship, into Haifa, and its 599 passengers were shipped to Cyprus. The British arrested the crew, which included 18 US. seamen..
March 13, 1947
British authorities announced 78 arrests as a result of unofficial Jewish cooperation, but two railroads were attacked, resulting in two deaths, and eight armed men robbed a Tel Aviv bank of $65,000. .
March 14, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up part of an oil pipeline in Haifa and a section of the rail line near Beer Yakou .
March 17, 1947
British authorities ended marshal law which had kept 300,000 Jews under house arrest for 16 days and tied up most economic activity..
March 17, 1947
A military court sentenced Moshe Barazani to be hanged for possessing a hand grenade. .
March 18, 1947
Underground leaflets admitted the murder of Michael Shnell on Mount Carmel as an informer. .
March 22, 1947
British officials announced the arrest of five known underground members, and the discovery near Petah Tikvah of the body of Leon Meshiah, a Jew presumably slain as a suspected informer. .
March 28, 1947
The Irgun blew up the Iraq Petroleum Co. pipeline in Haifa..
March 29, 1947
A British army officer was killed by Jewish underground membesr when they ambushed a party of horsemen near the Ramle camp. A raid on a Tel Aviv bank yielded $109,000. .
March 30, 1947
Units of the British Royal Navy, answering an SOS, took the disabled " Moledeth" with 1,600 illegal Jewish refugees on board under tow some 50 miles outside Palestinian waters. .
March 31, 1947
Jewish underground members dynamited the British-owned Shell-Mex oil tanks in Haifa, starting a fire that destroyed a quarter-mile of the waterfront. The damage was set at more than $1,000,000, and the British government in Palestine has stated that the Jewish community will have to pay for it. .
April 2, 1947
The "Ocean Vigour" was damaged by a bomb in Famagusta Harbor, Cyprus. The Haganah admitted the bombing. .
April 3, 1947
A court in Jerusalem sentenced Daniel Azulai and Meyer Feinstein, members of the Irgun, to death for the October 30 attack on the Jerusalem railroad station. The Palestine Supreme Court admitted an appeal of Dov Bela Gruner's death sentence.
April 3, 1947
The transport "Empire Rival" was damaged by a time bomb while en route from Haifa to Port Said in Egypt. .
April 7, 1947
The High Court denied a new appeal against the death sentence of Dov Bela Gruner, and a British patrol killed Moshe Cohen. .
April 8, 1947
Jewish undergroud members killed a British constable in revenge for the Cohen death..
April 10, 1947
London. The British Government requested France and Italy to prevent Jews from embarking for Palestine. .
April 11, 1947
Jerusalem. Asher Eskovitch, a Jew, was beaten to death by Muslims when he entered the forbidden Mosque of Omar. .
April 13, 1947
Guela Cohen, Stern Gang illegal broadcaster, escaped from a British military hospital..
April 14, 1947
A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship "Guardian" and seized it along with 2,700 passengers after a gun battle in which two immigrants were killed and 14 wounded..
April 16, 1947
In spite of threats of reprisal from the Irgun, the British hanged Dov Bela Gruner and three otherIrgun members at Acre Prison on Haifa Bay. Jewish communities were kept under strict curfew for several hours. Soon after the deaths were announced, a time bomb was found in the Colonial Office in London but was defused..
April 17, 1947
Lt. Gen. G. Macmillan confirmed death sentences for two more convicted underground members, Meier Ben Feinstein and Moshe Ben Barazani, but reduced Daniel Azulai's sentence to life imprisonment. .
April 18, 1947
Irgun's reprisals for the Gruner execution were an attack on a field dressing station near Nethanaya where one sentry was killed, an attack on an armored car in Tel Aviv where one bystander was killed and harmless shots at British troops in Haifa. .
April 20, 1947
A series of bombings by Jewish underground members in retaliation for the hanging of Gruner injured 12 British soldiers..
April 21, 1947
Meir Feinstein and Moshe Barazani killed themselves in prison a few hours before they were scheduled to be hanged. They blew themselves up with bombs smuggled to them in hollowed-out oranges. .
April 22, 1947
A troop train arriving from Cairo was bombed outside Rehovoth with five soldiers and three civilians killed and 39 persons injured.
April 23, 1947
The British First Lord of the Admiralty, Viscount Hall, defended the Labor Government's policy in Palestine and he acknowledged in the House of Lords that Britain would not "carry out a policy of which it did not approve" despite any UN action. He blamed contributions from American Jews to the Jewish Palestinians as aiding the underground groups there and cited the toll since August 1, 1945: 113 killed, 249 wounded, 168 Jews convicted, 28 sentenced to death, four executed, 33 slain in battles. Viscount Samuel urged increased immigration. .
April 23, 1947
The Irgun proclaimed its own "military courts" to "try" British troops and policemen who resisted them. .
April 25, 1947
Stern Gang squad drove a stolen post office truck loaded with explosives into the Sarona police compound and detonated it, killing five British policemen. .
April 26, 1947
Haifa. The murder of Deputy Police Superintendent A. Conquest climaxed a week of bloodshed. .
May 4, 1947
The walls of Acre prison were blasted open by anIrgun bomb squad and 251 Jewish and Arab prisoners escaped after a gun battle in which 15 Jews and 1 Arab were killed, 32 (including six British guards) were injured and 23 escapists were recaptured. The Palestine Govemment promised no extra punishment if the 189 escapees still at large will surrender. .
May 4, 1947
The Political Action Committee for Palestine ran a series of advertisements in New York newspapers seeking funds to buy parachutes for young European Jews planning to crash the Palestine irnmigration barrier by air. .
May 8, 1947
A Jew was ambushed and shot to death by an Arab group near Tel Aviv, and three Jewish owned Tel Aviv shops whose owners refused to contribute money to Jewish underground groups were burned down. .
May 12, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen..
May 12, 1947
The British authorities announced that 312 Jewish political prisoners were held in Kenya, East Africa, 20 in Latrun and 34 in Bethlehem..
May 15, 1947
The Stern Gang killed two British lieutenants and injured seven other persons with two derailments and three badge demolitions..
May 16, 1947
Haifa Assistant Police Superintendent, Robert Schindler, a German Jew, was killed by the Stern gang, and a British constable was killed on the Mt Carmel-Haifa road near Jerusalem..
May 17, 1947
The 1,200 ton Haganah freighter "Trade Winds" was seized by the Royal Navy off the Lebanon coast and escorted into Haifa, and over 1,000 illegal immigrants were disembarked pending transfer to Cyprus. .
May 19, 1947
The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups. The complaint referred to a "Letter to the Terrorists of Palestine" by playwright Ben Hecht, American League for a Free Palestine co chairman, first published in the New York "Post" on May 15. The ad said, "We are out to raise millions for you.".
May 22, 1947
Arabs attacked a Jewish labor camp in the south, retaliating for a Haganah raid on the Arabs near Tel Aviv May 20. Some 40,000 Arab and Jewish workers united the same day in a one day strike against all establishments operated by the British War Ministry..
May 23, 1947
A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship "Mordei Haghettoath" off South Palestine and took control of its 1,500 passengers. Two British soldiers were convicted in Jerusalem of abandoning a jeep and army mail under attack..
May 28, 1947
Syria. Fawzi el-Kawukji who spent the war years in Germany after leading the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine, told reporters in Damascus that an unfavorable decision by the UN inquiry group would be the signal for war against the Jews in Palestine. "We must prove that in case" of an Anglo-American war with Russia, "we can be more dangerous or useful to them than the Jews," he added. .
May 28, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up a water main and a shed in the Haifa oil dock areas and made three attacks on railway lines in the Lydda and Haifa areas..
May 31, 1947
The Haganah ship "Yehuda Halevy" arrived under British naval escort with 399 illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus..
June 4, 1947
The Stern Gang sent letter bombs to high British governmental officials. Eight letter bombs containing powdered explosives were discovered in London. Recipients included Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden, Prime Minister Attlee and Winston Churchill..
June 5, 1947
Washington. President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups. The American Jewish Committee and Jewish Labor Committee condemned Ben Hecht's campaign..
June 6, 1947
New York Secretary General of the UN, Trygve Lie has forwarded a request to all countries a request by the British that they guard their fronties against departure of illegal immigrants bound for Palestine.
June 18, 1947
Haganah disclosed that one of its men was killed by a booby trap which foiled an Irgun plot to blow up British Military Headquartes in Tel Aviv. .
June 28, 1947
The Stern Gang opened fire on British soldiers waiting in line outside a Tel Aviv theater, killing three and wounding two. Another Briton is killed and several wounded in a Haifa hotel. This action was claimed by Jewish underground members to be in retaliation for British brutality and the alleged slaying of a missing 16 year old Jew, Alexander Rubowitz while he was being held in an Army barracks on May 6. .
June 29, 1947
New York. The UN Committee votes 9-0 to condemn the acts as "flagrant disregard" of the UN appeal for an interim truce as Stern Gang wounded four more Bdtish soldiers on a beach at Herzlia. Major Roy Alexander Farran surrendered voluntarily after his escape from custody inJerusalem on June 19. He had been arrested in connection with the Rubowitz case. .
June 30, 1947
The Palestine goverrunent permitted oil companies to raise paces of benzine nearly 10% to pay for $1 million damage suffered when Jewish underground members blew up oil installations at Haifa on March 31. .
July 2, 1947
lrgun members robbed a Haifa bank of $3,200 while both the Stem gang and the Irgun warned the British that their provocative acts in Palestine must end before a truce can be effected. The Guaternalan and Czech members of the UN Commission visited two Jewish convicts in Acre Prison..
July 12, 1947
Dr. Adem Altman, president of the United Zionist Revisionists, told a party rally in Jerusalem that the Revisionists would settle for nothing less than an unpartitioned free Jewish state in Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Irgun announced in Jerusalem that two British sergeants kidnaped in Nathanaya are being held in Tel Aviv and have been sentenced to death by Irgun courtmartial. .
July 14, 1947
Netanya. The British imposed mastial law and placed the 15,000 inhabitants of Netanya under house arrest. They made 68 arrests and sentenced 21 persons to 6 months each in the Latrun detention camp. .
July 17, 1947
Netanya. The Irgun in five mine operations against military traffic to and from Nathanya killed one Briton and injured 16. .
July 18, 1947
Steamer Exodus repelled by forces from shores of Palestine, (formerly the "President Warfield") was escorted into Haifa by British naval units after a battle, William Bernstein and two immigrants were killed and more than 30 injured.

The blockade runner itself was badly damaged. The remainder of the 4,554 passengers, the largest group of illegal immigrants to sail for Palestine in a sister ship, were put aboard British prison ships for removal to Cyprus. The American captain, Bernard Marks, and his crew were arrested. The ship sailed from France.

July 19, 1947
Haifa. Rioting, quickly suppressed, broke out among the passengess of the "Exodus 1947" when they learned they were to be resumed to France. .
July 19, 1947
The Palestine Government charges that a Jewish "campaign of lawlessness, murder and sabotage" has cost 70 lives and $6 million in damage since 1940. .
July 21, 1947
Before officially admitting that 4,529 passengers of the "Exodus 1947" who had been transferred to three British ships, were being sent not to Cyprus but back to France, the Palestine Government took the precaution of first placing Jesusalem's 90,000 Jews under nightly house arrest. .
July 23, 1947
Haganah sank the British tansport "Empire Lifeguard" in Haifa harbor as it was discharging 300 Jewish immigrants who had officiallyy been admitted to Palestine under quota. Sixty-five immigrants were killed and 40 were wounded. The British were able to refloat the ship..
July 26, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline 12 miles east of Haifa and destroyed a Mt. Carmel radar station..
July 27, 1947
An ambush and mines cost the British seven more casualties, all wounded..
July 28, 1947
Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1,174 Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units off Palestine and brought into Haifa. The illegal immigrants were transshipped aboard British transports and taken to Cyprus..
July 29, 1947
The British authorities hanged three Irgunists in Acre prison despite appeals from Jewish leaders. The condemned, Myer Nakar, Absalom Habib and Jacob Weiss, had fought in the Czech underground during the war. They were convicted of blowing up Acre Prison on May 4 and liberating 200 Arabs and Jews. .
July 29, 1947
The 4,429 Exodus 1947 illegal immigrants who sailed from Sete, France, July 11 for Palestine only to be shipped back by the British aboard three transports, refused to debark as the vessels anchored off Port de Douc, France. Only a few who were aboard went ashore. The French government informed the refugees that they do not have to debark but will be welcomed if they do. The transports are the "Runnymede Park," "Ocean Vigour" and "Empire Valour.".
July 30, 1947
Irgun members announced that they have handed two British sergeants, Marvyn Paice and Clifford Martin, whom they had held as hostages since duly 12, for "crimes against the Jewish community." The two were seized when death sentences on the threeIrgun members were confirmed by the British authorities. Two more British soldiers were killed by a land mine near Hadera. British troops attacked the Jewish colony of Pardes Hanna in revenge for the murders..
July 31, 1947
The bodies of the two murdered Bdtish sergeants were found hanging from eucalyptus trees one and a half miles from Netanya about 5:30 AM. A booby trap blew Martin's body to bits when it was cut down. Enraged British troops stormed into Tel Aviv, wrecked shops, attacked pedestrians and sprayed a bus with gunfire killing five Jews: two men, two women and a boy..
August 1, 1947
Thirty-three Jews are injured in an anti-British riot at Tel Aviv during the funeral procession of five civilians killed by British soldiers on July 31. InJerusalem a Jewish underground attack on the British security zone in Rehavia was repulsed with one attacker killed and two captured..
August 2, 1947
The body of an unidentified Jew was found on a road near Tel Aviv. He was believed to have been kidnapped by men in British uniforms two weeks ago. Total casualties in Palestine since mid-July: 25 persons slain, 144 wounded. The dead include 15 Britons, two Jewish underground membmers, eight civilians. Anti-British slogans, swastikas and dollar signs are painted onto British consulates in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago and Los Angeles.
August 3, 1947
The Bank of Sharon in Ramat Gan was robbed by Jewish underground, $8,000 stolen..
August 4, 1947
An Irgun leader in Paris states that his organization has sentenced high British military and civilian offficials in Palestine to death "in absentia" and will hang them upon capture..
August 5, 1947

Striking at dawn, British security forces arrested 35 leading Zionists and sent them to the Latrun detention camp in an attempt to wipe out the Irgunleadership.In reprisal, Irgunists blew up the Department of Labor in Jerusalem, killing three British constables. Those arrested included Mayor Israel Rokach of Tel Aviv; Mayor Oved Ben Ami of Nathanya; Mayor Abraham Kdnitzki of Ramat Gan; Adeh Altman, president of the radical Revisionist Party; Menahem Arber, leader of the Revisionist youth organization, B'rith Trumpeldor, which is outlawed; Max Kritzman, Dov Bela Gruner's attomey, and David Stem, brother of the late founder of the Stern Gang. All those arrested except the three mayors were Revisionists. Among many papers confiscated was correspondence from Soviet Russian agents in Italy and Bulgaria and extensive plans to poison the water supply of the non-Jewish parts of Jerusalem with botulism and other bacteria. Bacteria was supplied by Soviet sources through Bulgaria.

August 15, 1947
A mine derailed a Cairo-Haifa troop train north of Lydda, killing the engineer, and Irgunist claimed the incident was part of its campaign to disrupt all the Palestine rail traffic. .
August 16, 1947
Arab-Jewish clashes have brought death to 12 Arabs and 13 Jews and heavy property destruction this week in the regions of Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Strife was renewed on august 10 when Arabs killed four Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe, in reprisal for the deaths of two Arabs in a Haganahraid in Fega two months ago. Haganah responded to the Arab actions by bombing a house in an Arab orange grove near Tel Aviv, killing eleven Arabs, including a woman and four children. .
August 18, 1947
The shops of five Jewish merchants in Tel Aviv were destroyed by the Irgun because the owners refused to give money to that organization. .
Sept. 9, 1947
Hamburg, Germany. In a bitter three hour fight aboard the "Runnymede Park," 350 British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4,300 "Exodus 1947" illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany. First ashore yesterday were the "Ocean Vigour's" 1,406; a few put up token resistance and five passengers sustained minor injuries. Early today, the "Empire Rival's" 1,420 passengers debarked peaceably after a home made bomb was found in the ship's hold. .
Sept. 10, 1947
Washington D.C. Secretary of State George C. Marshall disclosed that the US had urged Britain to reconsider sending the "Exodus" group to Germany, but Britain replied tht there were no facilities for housing them elsewhere because the French did not want them and there were a number of vacant detention camps in Germany. .
Sept. 11, 1947
Paris. The French government has now announced tht it would admit the '`Exodus" refugees if they were not forcibly deported from Germany and on the understanding that they will be admitted eventually to Palestine. .
October 13, 1947
A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem, injuring two employees slightly. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September 27. .
Nov. 14, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen in Jerusalem and two soldiers in Tel Aviv to raise the total casualties in three days of violence to 10 Britons and five Jews killed, and 33 Britons and five Jews wounded. The outbreaks began after British troops killed three girls and two boys in a raid on a farmhouse arsenal near Raanana on November 12. The underground retaliated yesterday by throwing hand grenades and firing a machine gun into the Ritz Cafe in Jerusalem. .
Nov. 16, 1947
About 185 European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them. A larger vessel, the "Kadimah," was seized and brought to Haifa where 794 Jews were transshipped to a British transport for Cyprus..
Nov. 17, 1947
The British administration disclosed that it will sell state owned real estate along the Haifa waterfront, from which it expects to make $8 million. It will also invest in England about $16 million from bonds that had been sold to Palestinians. Zionists strongly protested this as they said it would denude Palestine of its assets. There was no comment from the administration to these charges. .
Nov. 22, 1947
An Arab was killed in Haifa by the Stern Gangfollowing the killings of four other Arabs near Raanana on November 20..
Dec. 1, 1947
The Arab League announced on December 1 that premiers and foreign ministers of seven Arab states would meet in Cairo next week to plan strategy against partition. In Palestine: Jerusalem and the Jaffa Tel Aviv boundary zone were centers of week-long strife which began when seven Jews were killed throughout Palestine on November 30 and the mayor of Nablus, Arab nationalist center, proclaimed jihad or a holy war. British High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham warned the Arab Higher Command on December 1 that Britain was determined to keep order so long as it held its mandate, and police stopped Arab agitators from raising crowds in Jerusalem..
Dec. 2, 1947
Arabs looted and burned a three block Jewish business district in Jerusalem on December 2, the first day of a three day Arab general strike during which 20 Jews and 15 Arabs were killed. When British troops failed to intervene, Haganah came into the open for the first time in eight years to restrain large scale Jewish retaliation and also guard Jewish districts. Some Haganah men were arrested for possessing weapons. The day's strife caused $1 million worth of damage and resulted in a 21 hour curfew being applied to Arab Jerusalem for the rest of the week. The curfew was extended to outlying roads on December 3 to stop stonings of Jewish traffic and keep rural Arabs out of the capital. Max Pinn, head of the Jewish Agency's Trade and Transfer Deparunent was killed on December 2 when Arabs stoned his auto near Ramleh On this day dews stoned Arab buses in Jerusalem. On December 2, Haganah claimed to have mobilized 10,000 men in the intercity trouble zone, and the Arab Legion of Trans-Jordan reported on this date that it had reinforced Jaffa. Seven Jews were killed in Jaffa-Tel Aviv on this date. There were lesser attacks in Haifa this week. Also, the Syrian Parliament enacted a draft law and voted $860,000 for the relief of Palestinian Arabs. On the same day Arabs attacked the Jewish part of Aleppo. .
Dec. 3, 1947
On the Jaffa-Tel Aviv boundary, which also is under around-the clock curfew, the week's heaviest battle was a six-hour clash between Haganah and Arabs on December 3 in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed and 75 persons injured. .
Dec. 5, 1947
The United States Department of State announced on December 5,1947 that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East. On December 5, British military reinforcements were sent to Aden after four days of Arab-Jewish fighting in which 50 Jews and 25 Arabs were killed. .
Dec. 13, 1947
On December 13, bombings by the Irgun killed at least 16 Arabs and injured 67 more in Jerusalemand Jaffa and burned down a hundred Arab houses in Jaffa. In Syria, an anti-Jewish attack in rebaliation for the Irgun actions burned down a 2,750-year old synagogue in Aleppo and destroyed the priceless Ben-Asher Codex, a 10th century Hebrew Bible of original Old Testament manuscripts. .
Dec. 14, 1947
Regular troops of the Arab Legion of the Trans-Jordan Army killed 14 Jews and wounded nine Jews, two British soldiers and one Arab when they atbcked a bus convoy approaching their camp near Lydda. The Arabs said the Jews attacked them first. .
Dec. 17, 1947
British troops came to the aid of police sending off a raid by 100 Arabs on the Jewish settlement of Nevatim, seven miles west of Beersheba..
Dec. 18, 1947
Haganah killed 10 Arabs in a reprisal raid on Khisas in the north of the country..
Dec. 19, 1947
Reliable reports from Damascus state that Arab guerrillas are massing there in preparation to launching an attack into Palestine before the first of the year. .
Dec. 20, 1947
Haganah carried out another said on Arabs by atbcking the village of Qazasa near Rehovoth. One Arab was killed and two were wounded. .
Dec. 25, 1947
Emir Mohammed Zeinati, an Arab landowner, was killed in Haifa for selling land to the Jews. Stern gang members machine-gunned two British soldiers in a Tel Aviv cafe. .
Dec. 26, 1947
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Netanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. The Stern gang distributed leaflets reporting that Israel Levin, a member, was killed in Tel Aviv on December 24 for trying to betray a Stern Gangmember. .
Dec. 29, 1947
Irgun members kidnaped and flogged a Briitish major and thzee sergeans in rebliation for the flogging of Benjamin Kimkhim who was also sentenced to 18 years in prison on December 27 for robbing a bank. The major, E. Brett, was seized in Netanya and the sergeants in Tel Aviv and Rishon el Siyon. Each got 18 lashes, the same number Kimkhim seceived. An Irgun bombing at the Damascus Gate in Jesusalem killed 11 Arabs and two Britons. .
Dec. 30, 1947
The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire and 12 sacred scrolls wese destroyed by argry British citizens..
Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects UNPartition Plan.
Three Jews are hanged for involvement in Acre Prison break and two British sergeants are executed in reprisal.
Scrolls dating from approximately 22 B.C.E. are discovered at Qumran, near the Dead Sea.
1947 Construction begins on Tapline for Saudi oil.
January 4, 1948
A series of bombings inflicted heavy Arab casualties.14 were killed and 100 injured when theStern gang destroyed the Arab National Committee headquarters in Jaffa. .
January 5, 1948
Jerusalem. 15 Arabs were killed after Haganahbombed the Semirarnis Hotel..
January 7, 1948
14 Arabs were killed by two Irgun bombs at Jerusalem's Jaffa gate.
January 12, 1948
Stem gang members looted Barclay's Bank in Tel Aviv of $37,000.
January 13, 1948
The U.S. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of 199 tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency, which got 73 tons out of the country before the rest was seized
Jan. 14-15, 1948
The FBI arrested six New York men on charges of trying to ship Haganah 60,000 pounds of TNT, which was seized in Jersey Gty after having been bought from the Letterkenny Arsenal Ordnance Depot in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
January 25, 1948
Following the deaths of ten Jews and two Arabs killed in a battle outside Jerusalem, British authorities stated that 721 Arabs, 408 Jews, 19 civilians and 12 British policemen (a total of 1,160) had been killed in an eight-week period that 1,171 Arabs, 749 Jews, 13 civilians and 37 British officers had been wounded.
1948 Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony-Vacuum (both now ExxonMobil) buy interest in Aramco; company headquarters moved from San Francisco to New York.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1946 - 1949)

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July 4
Mob attack against Jewish survivors in Kielce, Poland. Following a ritual murder accusation, a Polish mob kill more than 40 Jews and wound dozens of others. This attack sparks a second mass migration of Jews from Poland and Eastern Europe to DP camps in Germany, Austria and Italy.
August 1
The IMT passes judgment on the major Nazi war criminals on trial inNuremberg. Eighteen were convicted, and three were acquitted. Eleven of the defendants were sentenced to death.
October 16
In accordance with the sentences handed down after the convictions, ten defendants are executed by hanging. One defendant, Hermann Goering, escapes the hangman by committing suicide in his cell.

April 2
Britain requests special session of the General Assembly to consider future government of Palestine.
May 15
General Assembly establishes a Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
July 11
The Exodus 1947 ship carrying 4,500 Jewish refugees sails for British-administered Palestine from southern France, despite British restrictions on Jewish immigration. The British intercept the ship and force it to proceed to Haifa in Palestine and then the French port of Port-de-Bouc, where it lay anchor for more than a month.
August 31
UNSCOP issues majority report recommending partition of Palestine with an internationalised Jerusalem; minority report recommended federal scheme
September 8
Ultimately, the British take the refugees from the Exodus 1947 to Hamburg, Germany, and forcibly return them to DP camps. The fate of the Exodus 1947 dramatized the plight of Holocaust survivors in the DP camps and increased international pressure on Great Britain to allow free Jewish immigration to Palestine.
September 29
Arab Higher Committee formally rejects UNSCOP plan.
October 2
Jewish Agency formally accepts UNSCOP partition plan.
November 29
As the postwar Jewish refugee crisis escalates and relations between Jews and Arabs deteriorate, the British government decides to submit the status of Palestine to the United Nations. In a special seccion on this date, the United Nations General Assembly voted to partition Palestine into two new states, one Jewish and the other Arab. The decision was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab ledership.UN approves partition plan by a vote of 33-13 with 10 abstentions to create a Jewish and Arab state.
November 30

Arab mobs attack Jewish quarters in Jerusalem and Arab irregulars begin operations against Jewish cities and settlements.

March 19
U.S. proposes suspension of partition plan and calls for a special session of the General Assembly to discuss trusteeship for Palestine.
April 1
Security Council calls for truce in Palestine and special session of the General Assembly to reconsider future of Palestine.
May 13
The Arabs of Jaffa surrender to the Haganah forces
May 14
Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel (May 14). U.S. recognizes Israel de facto. David Ben-Gurion announces the establishment of the State of Israel in Tel Aviv and declares that Jewish immigration into the new state would be unrestricted. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews immigrate to Israel, including more than two-thirds of the Jewish DPs in Europe.
End of British MandateArab armies invade Israel.
President Harry S. Truman recognizes the State of Israel within its first hour of existence.
May 17
USSR recognizes Israel.
May 19
Jerusalem is cut off by Arab forces.
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).
May 20
General Assembly Committee appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator for Palestine.
Brandeis University is founded in the U.S. as first nonsectarian, Jewish-sponsored, institution of higher education.
May 28
Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem falls to the Jordanian Arab Legion.
May 31
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) formed.
Congress passes the Displaced Persons Act, authorizing 200,000 DPs to enter the United States in 1949 and 1950. Though at first the law's stipulations made it unfavorable to Jewish DPs, Congress amended the bill, and by 1952, thousands of DPs enter the United States. An estimated 80,000 Jewish DPs immigrated to the United States with the aid of American Jewish agencies between 1945 and 1952.
June 1
First convoy reaches Jerusalem along “Burma Road.”
June 11
First cease-fire proclaimed - Four week truce commences.
June 22
Altalena fired upon and sunk off the coast of Tel-Aviv.
July 8
Arab League refuses to renew truce; fighting resumed and Israel gained on all fronts.
July 9
First cease-fire end.
July 21
Second cease-fire proclaimed.
August 14
Arab countries reject Israeli peace proposals .
August 17
First Israeli coin minted.
September 17
UN mediator Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte murdered in Jerusalem by Lehi fighters. Succeeded by Dr. Bunche.
September 20
Bernadotte Plan published by UN.
October 15
Second cease-fire ends.
October 15
Fighting breaks out in Negev; the Egyptian army driven south.
October 19
Security Council orders an immediate cease-fire.
October 22
Israel and Egypt agree to cease-fire.
November 8
First census indicates 712,000 Jewish residents, and 69,000 Arab residents in the State of Israel.
November 16
Security Council calls for armistice talks.
November 18
Israel accepts call for armistice.
December 11
General Assembly establishes Palestine Conciliation Commission, reaffirms decision on Jerusalem and calls for repatriation or resettlement of refugees.
December 17
Beginning of “Operation Magic Carpet” to bring Yemenite Jews to Israel.
November 22
Fighting breaks out in Negev. Egyptian forces driven beyond mandatory borders, but retain the Gaza Strip.
Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries: 1948-52.

January 7
Fighting ends in Sinai. Israeli forces withdraw from Sinai following British ultimatum and U.S. pressure.
January 13
Israeli and Egyptian delegations meet in Rhodes for armistice talks, chaired by Dr. Bunche. Armistice agreements begin with Egypt,JordanSyriaLebanon.
Jerusalem is declared the capitol of Israel and is divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
January 21
First Knesset (parliament) elected. Ben Gurion heads the Labor led coalition.
January 30
Britain, New Zealand and the Netherlands recognize Israel de facto. Australia and Chile recognize Israel de jure.
U.S. recognizes Israel de jure.
February 1
Israel ends military governorship in Jerusalem.
Chaim Weizmann is elected Israel's first president. First meeting of the First Knesset.
February 24
Armistice agreement signed with Egypt.
March 9
David Ben-Gurion presents first government to the Knesset.
March 23
Armistice agreement signed with Lebanon.
April 3
Armistice agreement signed with Jordan.
April 25
Trans-Jordan becomes The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
First round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne under auspices of Palestine Conciliation Commission.
The Weizmann Institute is inaugurated in Rehovot.
May 11
Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
July 20
Armistice agreement signed with Syria.
Second round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne is deadlocked.
August 17
Theodor Herzl's remains are brought to Israel and interred on Mt. Herzl, the newly created Israeli official cemetary.
November 9
Professor Yigal Yadin appointed second IDF Chief-of-General Staff.
December 9
General Assembly votes for internationalization of Jerusalem under Trusteeship Council administration.
December 13
Government decides to hold its Knesset sessions in Jerusalem and declares Jerusalem to be Israel's capital.
Umm Rashrash, today Eilat, is captured by the IDF.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1950 - 1959)

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Click on a Year: 1950 | 1951 | 1952 | 1953 | 1954 | 1955 | 1956 | 1957 | 1958 |1959
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As American Jews move to the suburbs, they build new synagogues. Joining a synagogue becomes the chief expression of Jewish identity. In 1930, a mere 20 percent of American Jewish families belong to a synagogue; by 1960, nearly 60 percent do.
January 16
Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg recognize Isael de jure
January 23
Knesset by 60-2 vote, establishes Jerusalem as Israel's capital
April 4
UN Trusteeship Council approves statute for the internationalization of Jerusalem.
April 24
Jordan annexes West Bank, including East Jerusalem
April 28
Britain recognizes Israel de jure
The Knesset moves from Tel Aviv to King George St. in Jerusalem.
May 25
U.S., Britain and France issue Tripartite Declaration on Middle East
June 17
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen initial Collective Security Pact, calling on them to assist an Arab state under attack.
July 5
The Law of Return is enacted
November 14
First nationwide municipal elections after independence
The West Bank unites with Jordan.
May 19
Operation Ezra and Nehemiah brings Iraqi Jews to Israel
Fifty-fifty deal between Aramco and Saudi Arabia.
Trans-Arabian Pipeline completed from Eastern Province oil fields to Mediterranean coast.

April 12
Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Rememberence Day established on 27th of month of Nissan
May 18
Security Council calls on Israel to halt Huleh drainage project pending arrangements to be fixed by the Mixed Armistice Commission. Fighting erupts between Israel and Syria in demilitarized zone.
July 20
King Abdullah of Jordan is assassinated at the al-Aqsa Mosque inJerusalem on suspicion of planning peace talks with Israel.
July 30
Elections held for the Second Knesset
September 1
Security Council calls on Egypt to end its blockade of Suez Canal to shipping to and from Israel. Egypt refuses to comply
September 13
Palestine Conciliation Commission opens another round of talks in Paris with Israeli and Arab delegations
September 28
Israel offers non-agression pacts to Arab states, calls for direct negotiations and offers compensation for Arab refugee's property
The Hula Valley reclamation program begins turning swamps into arable lands.
Egged bus transport cooperative is founded.
October 7
David Ben-Gurion presents his government to the Knesset
November 21
Palestine Conciliation Commission announces failure of the talks
December 24
Libya proclaims independence
Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian in Iran (first postwar oil crisis)
Safaniya field, world's largest off shore oil field, discovered in Saudi Arabia.

Operation Coresh brings Iranian Jews to Israel.
The Israel Atomic Energy Commission is established.
January 1
Seven armed terrorists attacked and killed a 19-year-old girl in her home in Beit Yisrael in Jerusalem
January 7
Knesset summoned to approve broader negotiations with West Germany: Menachem Begin leads stormy demonstration against negotiations
January 9
Knesset supports negotations by 61-50
May 13
The first graduating class of physicians is awarded degrees at Hebrew University.
July 23
Free Officers carry out Coup d'etat in Egypt; oust King Farouk
July 28
Egypt proclaimed Republic
August 11
Hussein proclaimed Crown Prince following illness of King Talal. Council of regents appointed
August 12-13
Yiddish writers and other Jewish cultural figures are executed in the Soviet Union on “Night of the Murdered Poets” on orders from Joseph Stalin in the basement of the Lubyanka prison in Moscow.
August 18
Ben-Gurion welcomes Egyptian revolution in Knesset
September 10
Israel and West Germany sign Reparations Agreement in Luxembourg
November 9
President Chaim Weizman dies
December 8
Yitzchak Ben-Tzvi sworn in as President, after Albert Einstein declines a request from Ben-Gurion to serve.
Israel participates in its first Olympic Games in Helsinki, Finland.

The Academy for Hebrew Language and the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI) are founded.
Egyptian republic proclaimed, Nasser takes over: 1953, 1954
The Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial Authority is established.
February 12
USSR breaks diplomatic relations with Israel
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed for conspiring to deliver U.S. atomic bomb secrets to the U.S.S.R.
May 13
U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles visits Israel
June 7
A youngster was killed and three others were wounded in shooting attacks on residential areas in southern Jerusalem.
June 9
Terrorists killed a resident of Lod, after throwing hand grenades and spraying gunfire in all directions. On the same night, another group of terrorists attacked a house in Hadera.
June 11
Terrorists attacked a young couple in their home in Kfar Hess and shot them to death.
July 20
Relations with USSR restored
Unit 101, an IDF special force unit, is founded and commanded by Ariel Sharon to combat ongoing terror attacks by Arab fedayeen.
August 19
Mossadegh falls, Shah returns in Iran.
September 2
Israel starts work on Jordan River project. Syria complains to Security Council
October 15
President Eisenhower appoints Ambassador Eric Johnston to help establish regional water development project based on Jordan River
October 20-28
U.S. halts economic aid to Israel until it halts work on the Jordan River project. Israel complies and aid resumed
December 7
Ben-Gurion resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Moshe Sharett as Prime Minister and Pinchas Lavon as Defense Minister

Yad Vashem Holocaust museum opens.
Stern College for Women, the first liberal arts women's college under Jewish auspices, opens in New York City.
The founding of the Conference of Major Jewish Organizations indicates a galvanization of Jewish lobby in the U.S.
January 1
“Katzner trial” opens in Jerusalem District Court. (Malkiel Greenwald was accused of libelling Dr. Rudolf Kastner regarding his alleged collaboration with Adolf Eichmann in Hungary, in 1944).
January 22
USSR vetoes Western draft resolutions at Security Council permitting Israel to resume work on River Jordan project.
March 17
Terrorists ambushed a bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv at Maale Akrabim, opening fire at short range. The terrorists boarded the bus, and shot each passenger, one by one, murdering 11.
March 20
USSR vetoes Western draft resolution at Security Council calling on Egypt to comply with 1951 resolution on Suez Canal
April 17
Colonel Nasser becomes Prime Minister of Egypt
Eleven Jews are arrested in Egypt on suspicion of planting bombs around Cairo. Two are hanged. Though Israel denies involvement, it is later learned Israeli Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon was behind the spy ring; Lavon is forced to resign over the operation, which becomes known as the “Lavon Affair.”
September 28
Egypt seizes Israeli ship “Bat Galim” at Port Said.
October 6
Israel offers at the UN non-aggression pact with Arab states

Soviet bloc begins first arms sales to Egypt and Syria.
January 2
Two hikers killed by terrorists in the Judean Desert
February 17
Lavon resigns as Defense Minister amidst controvery over espionage scandal involving Israeli agents who were executed in Egypt
February 21
Ben-Gurion returns to government as Defense Minister after Lavon's resignation.
February 24
Baghdad Pact signed between Turkey and Iraq.
Development town of Dimona is founded in the Negev by 36 immigrant families from Morocco and Tunisia.
February 28
Following intensified raids into Israel, IDF raids Egyptian military installations in Gaza
March 24

One young woman killed and 18 wounded when terrorists threw hand grenades and opened fire on a crowded wedding celebration in Patish

Israel excluded from participation in Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations
Bar Ilan University, with its emphasis on Jewish heritage studies, opens in Ramat Gan.
June 22
Dr. Israel Kastner, a Hungarian Jew, was found guilty by a district court of collaboration with the Nazis; the decision was eventually appealed and overturned for lack of evidence
July 26
Elections for the Third KnessetBen-Gurion again becomes Prime Minister
July 27
Bulgarian fighter pilots down an El Al civilian airline, killing 58 people
September 27
Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal announced
October 11
Arab League rejects Eric Johnston's Jordan River plan
October 18
Premier Sharett applies to U.S. for permission to purchase arms
October 20
Egypt and Syria sign mutual defence treaty
November 2
Ben-Gurion again becomes Israel's Prime Minister
Nasser objects to terms of Western offer to finance the building of the Aswan Dam.
December 6
Israel protests to Security Council, in note dated 22 November, continued Egyptian attacks from Gaza Strip
December 26
Cairo announces beginning of implementation of defence pacts with Syria and Saudi Arabia

Sudan & Tunisia gain independence, as well as Pakistan Republic.
Israel begins laying on oil pipeline from Eilat to Ashkelon.
Oil discovered in Algeria and Nigeria.
January 18
Nasser announces new constitution for Egypt and pledges to re-conquer Palestine
January 25
Ambassador Eban requests permission from Secretary Dulles to acquire arms in the U.S.
March 12
EgyptSyria and Saudi Arabia announce plans to coordinate their defense

UN Secretary General tours Middle East in an effort to reestablish armistice. Cease-fire achieved between Israel and Egypt on 19 April and with Jordan on 26 April

April 7
One young woman killed when terrorists threw 3 hand grenades into her house in Ashkelon.
Two killed when terrorists opened fire on a car at Kibbutz Givat Chaim.
April 11
Three children and one youth worker killed, and five injured, when terrorists opened fire on a synagogue full of children and teenagers in Shafrir (Kfar Chabad).
April 29
Egyptians killed 21-year-old Ro'i Rottenberg from Nahal Oz
May 6
Jordan and Egypt announce plans to unify their forces
May 9
Dulles tells NATO in Paris that the U.S. would not sell arms to Israel directly in order to avoid U.S.-USSR confrontation in the Middle East
May 31
Syria and Jordan sign military agreement
France delivers arms to Israel under secret agreement with tacit U.S. approval
June 24
Nasser elected President of Egypt
July 20
U.S. refuses aid and credits for Egypt Aswan High Dam, Britain adopts similiar position
July 26
Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal.
September 12
Terrorists killed three Druze guards in Ein Ofarim.
September 23
Four archaeologists killed and 16 wounded when terrorists opened fire from a Jordanian position at Kibbutz Ramat Rachel.
September 24
Terrorists killed a girl in the fields of the farming community of Aminadav, near Jerusalem.
October 4
Five Israeli workers killed in Sdom.
October 8
Egypt and USSR reject proposals for international supervision of Suez Canal
October 9
Two workers were killed in an orchard of the Neve Hadasah youth village.
October 25
EgyptSyria and Jordan announce establishment of unified military command for “war of destruction against Israel.”
October 29
Sinai Campaign launched with Great Britain and France
Kfar Kassem massacre of 47 Arab civilians violating a curfew
November 2
General Assembly calls for cease-fire in Egypt, withdrawal of foreign troops, restoration of freedom of navigation
Tel Aviv University is opened.
November 4-5
End of Sinai CampaignGaza Strip and Sinai occupied. During the campaign, thousands of Jews are expelled from Egypt and come to Israel.
November 5
General Assembly establishes United Nations Emergency Force
November 6
Israel completes occupation of Sinai save for strip along Suez Canal
November 7
General Assembly calls on Britain, France and Israel to withdraw from Sinai and Suez Canal zone, President Eisenhower demands Israeli compliance. Premier Bulganin threatens Israel
November 8
Terrorists opened fire on a train, attacked cars and blew up wells, in the north and center of Israel. six Israelis were wounded
December 21
Last British and French troops leave Egypt
December 24
Beginning of Israeli forces withdrawal from Sinai

France helps Israel create nuclear research program in Dimona; a nuclear reactor is constructed.
National telephone dialing between Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa is introduced.
January 5
Eisenhower Doctrine unveiled “to deter Communist aggression in the Middle East area.”
January 22
Israel withdraws to mandatory border with Egypt, holds land strip to Sharm el-Sheikh and Gaza Strip
U.S. pressure on Israel to withdraw from Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh. General Assembly considers sanctions against Israel
February 18
Two civilians killed by terrorist landmines near Nir Yitzhak.
February 28
U.S.-Israel understanding on freedom of navigation and UN administration for Gaza Strip
March 1
Foreign Minister Meir announces to General Assembly Israel's readiness to withdraw from all Egyptian territories
March 6
Israel withdraws from Sinai and Gaza. UN forces (UNEF) along border
March 8
A shepherd from Kibbutz Beit Govrin was killed by terrorists in a field near the kibbutz
March 10
IDF withdraws to armistice lines
March 11
Egypt re-appoints military governor for Gaza
March 15
Egypt announces Israel not permitted to navigate through newly reopened Suez Canal
April 14
Eilat-Beersheba oil pipeline inaugurated
April 16
Two guards at Kibbutz Mesilot are killed by terrorists who infiltrated from Jordan.
May 20
terrorist opened fire on a truck in the Arava region, killing a worker.
May 29
One killed and two wounded when their vehicle struck a landmine in Kibbutz Kisufim.
Ben-Gurion announces in Knesset Israel's acceptance of “Eisenhower's Doctrine.”
Serious border clashes on Israel-Syria border
Arab boycott of all firms selling goods in Israel.
United States attains world's largest Jewish population.
August 23
Two guards of the Israeli Mekorot water company killed are killed in Kibbutz Beit Govrin.
October 29
Mentally deranged man throws a hand grenade into the Knesset. Five ministers are injured
October 31
Huleh swamp drainage project completed
Israel completes Huleh reclamation project
December 21
A member of Kibbutz Gadot was killed in the kibbutz fields.

The first supermarket opens in Tel Aviv on Ben-Yehuda Street.
The Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University opens in Jerusalem.
Immigration from Eastern Europe starts to grow, primarily from Romania.
January 15
Supreme Court verdict in Kastner trial
February 1
United Arabic Republic established through merger of Egypt and Syria.
February 11
Terrorists killed a resident of Moshav Yanov near Kfar Yona.
February 14
Jordan and Iraq form Arab Federation
March 8
Yemen joins United Arab Republic
March 20
Syria fires at Israeli workers engaged in widening Jordan River bed
The Knesset passes the first Basic Law to established and define the electoral system.
April 5
Terrorists lying in ambush shot and killed two people in Tel Lachish.
May 26
Four Israeli police officers and a UN officer killed in a Jordanian attack on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem.
July 14
Iraqi monarchy is overthrown in revolution, King killed. Civil war inLebanonJordan and Lebanon appeal for U.S. military aid.
July 15
U.S. marines land in Beirut; British paratroopers land in Jordan
August 2
Arab Federation dissolved by Hussein
August 4
First International Bible Quiz held in Jerusalem
October 25
U.S. ends its military intervention in Lebanon
November 7
Syrian artillery shell Israeli settlements in Huleh Valley
November 17
Ambassador Eban again proclaims Israel's readiness to compensate Arab refugees even before peace settlement.
Syrian terrorists killed the wife of the British air attache in Israel, who was staying at the guesthouse of the Italian Convent on the Mt. of the Beatitudes.
December 3
A shepherd killed and 31 civilians wounded in an artillery attack on Kibbutz Gonen.

Heichal Shlomo - seat of the Chief Rabbinate - is inaugurated.
The Carmelit subway is inaugurated in Haifa.
The USSR officially declares it will not allow Soviet Jews to immigrate to Israel.
Fatah is established by Yasser Arafat and associates.
January 23
A shepherd from Kibbutz Lehavot Habashan was killed.
February 1
Three civilians killed by a terrorist landmine at Moshav Zavdiel.
February 26
Egypt detains Liberian Ship Captain Manolis in Suez Canal with cargo from Israel to Ceylon and Malaya.
March 13
Egypt detains German ship Lialot in Suez Canal with Israeli cargo to Malaya and Phillipines.
March 24
Iraq withdraws from Baghdad Pact. Pact is re-named CENTO on August 18.
April 15
A guard was killed at Kibbutz Ramat Rahel.
April 27
Two hikers shot and killed at close range at Masada.
May 21
Egypt detains Danish ship Inge Toft, confiscates cargo destined from Israel to Hong Kong and Japan
September 6
Bedouin terrorists killed a paratroop reconnaissance officer near Nitzana.
September 8
Bedouins opened fire on an army bivouac in the Negev, killing anIDF officer, Captain Yair Peled.
October 3
A shepherd from Kibbutz Heftziba was killed near Kibbutz Yad Hana.
October 5
Egypt tells UN that Israel will be permitted to use Suez Canal afterPalestine refugee problem is settled
November 3
Elections for the Fourth Knesset
December 19
Egypt detains Greek ship Astypalea in Suez Canal. Nasser disavows previous promises to UN Secretary General to allow passage of Israeli cargo on non-Israeli ships.
A series of riots with an ethnic-socio-economic basis takes places in aHaifa suburb, Wadi Salib.

The Navy's first submarine, the Tanin (crocodile), arrives in Haifa.

Habima is declared the national theater of Israel.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1960 - 1969)

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Click on a Year: 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1965 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 |1969
Other Periods: 1940's | 1950's | 1970's | 1980's | 1990's | 2000's | 2010's

Theodore Heuss is the first German president to visit Israel.
Founding of the Jewish Reconstructionist movement (as a distinct denomination; Mordecai Kaplan): 1960s.
Hadassah Hospital and Hebrew University Medical School inaugurated at Ein Kerem, Jerusalem.
Letters from the Bar Kochba archive are discovered in a dig in the Judean desert.
OPEC founded in Baghdad.
January 18
Egypt announces USSR will finance second stage of Aswan High Dam.
February 20
Jordan opposes in Arab League creation of a Palestinian entity.
March 10
Ben-Gurion meets with President Eisenhower at White House.
April 26
Terrorists killed a resident of Ashkelon.
May 23
Adolf Eichmann is captured in Argentina by Israeli agents of theMossad, who bring him to Israel for trial for his involvement in Hitler's extermination of the Jews.
Ben-Gurion announces in Knesset capture of Eichmann.
July 23
Shah declares that Iran recognizes Israel de facto.
July 25
Egypt breaks its ties with Iran.

Operation Yachin bring Moroccan Jews to Israel as Morocco leaglizes immigration to Israel.
Israel's first nuclear reactor becomes operational at Nahal Sorek.
January 11
The Egoz, a ship bringing Morccan Jews to Israel - sinks.
March 16
IDF raids Syrian positions east of Sea of Galilee, following Syrian shelling.
April 9
Security Council condemns Israel for Galilee raid.
April 11
Eichmann trial begins at Beit Ha'am in Jerusalem.
Israel Beer, military historian and advisor to the Minister of Defense, is arrested for spying for the USSR and is sentenced to 15 years in jail.
August 15
Elections for the Fifth Knesset.
Civil war in Yemen - Egypt and Saudi Arabia intervene.
September 28
Syrian military coup d'etat breaks up the UAR.
December 11
Eichmann found guilty.
December 15
Eichmann sentenced to death by hanging, the first and only person in Israel to receive the death sentence.

Haifa University is opened.
Archeological excavations commence at Masada, under the direction of Professor Yigal Yadin.
United States' sale of Hawk missiles to Israel is concluded.
April 12
Terrorists fired on an Egged bus on the way to Eilat; one passenger was wounded.
May 31
Adolf Eichmann is executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.

In a landmark Supreme Court decision, the Ministry of Interior is ordered to recognize the marriage of a Jew and a Christian performed in Cyprus.
February 8
Pro-Egyptian Colonel Arif overthrows Qassim regime in Iraq
March 8
Officers group connected with Ba'ath party takes over power in Syria.
March 20
Knesset calls on West Germany to forbid its scientists to aid Egyptian missiles and arms development.
April 17
EgyptSyria and Iraq agree on new federation; also call for liberation of Palestine.
April 23
President Yitzchak Ben-Tzvi dies.
May 21
Zalman Shazar becomes Israel's third President.
June 16
David Ben-Gurion resigns as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense and retires. He is replaced by Levi Eshkol.
June 24
Prime Minister Levi Eshkol presents his government to the Knesset.
July 22
Nasser renounces Egypt's federation agreement with Syria and Iraq, and denounces Syria's Ba'ath party.
November 18
Military coup in Iraq; Arif becomes President.

Student Struggle for Soviet Union founded following U.S. march to protest Soviet anti-Jewish policies.
January 5
Pope Paul VI visits Israel as part of a Middle East Tour.
January 14
United Arab Summit in Cairo establish Unified Military Commando to prepare for war against Israel.
May 28
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is founded in Jordanian-controlled East Jerusalem.
The National Water Carrier begins operations, bringing water fromLake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.
June 2
Eshkol ends two days of talks with President Johnson in White House.
June 3
Israel wins the Asia Soccer Cup, beating South Korea 2-1 in the final.
July 9
Ze'ev Jabotinsky's remains are interred on Mt. Herzl.
September 5-11
Arab Summit conference in Alexandria agrees on measures to divert Jordan River headwaters.

President Lyndon B. Johnson signs into law the Immigration Act of 1965, abolishing the national origins quota system.
Arafat's Fatah begins the “armed struggle” against Israel, undertaking its first cross-border attack on January 1.
Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba proposes recognition of Israel.
January 1
Palestinian terrorists attempt to bomb the National Water Carrier - the first attack carried out by the PLO's Fatah faction.
February 12
West Germany announces suspension of arms sales to Israel.
May 11
The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is founded as the country's national museum.
May 12

Israel and West Germany establish diplomatic relations.

May 18
Eli Cohen is hanged in Damascus after being found guilty of spying for Israel.
May 31
Jordanian Legionnaires fired on the neighborhood of Musara inJerusalem, killing two civilians and wounding four.
June 1
Syria declares: Only solution for Palestine - elimination of Israel.
July 5
Fatah cell planted explosives near Beit Guvrin, and on the railroad tracks to Jerusalem near Kfar Battir.
July 15
Chief of Staff Rabin says Israel has effectively deterred Arab States from diverting Jordan River headwaters.
Teddy Kollek becomes Mayor of Jerusalem; he is re-elected six times and serves 28 years.
November 2
Elections for the Sixth Knesset.
December 29
U.S. confirms sale of tanks to Jordan.

The new Knesset building in Jerusalem is inaugurated.
The Coca-Cola Company announces it will open a plant in Israel in defiance of the the Arab Boycott.
May 2
Konrad Adenauer visits Israel.
May 16
Two Israelis killed when their jeep hit a terrorist landmine in Northern Galilee. Tracks led into Syria.
May 18
Eshkol declares in Knesset that Israel will not be first to introduce nuclear weapons to Middle East; calls for limitations on regional arms build-up.
May 19
U.S. confirms sale of jet fighters to Israel.
July 13
Two soldiers and 1 civilian killed when their truck struck a terroristlandmine near Almagor.
July 25
Serious clashes between Israel and Syria, followed by inconclusive Security Council debate.
November 4
Syria and Egypt sign mutual defence treaty providing for joint command.
November 13
Israel raids Samu village following incursions from Jordan.
December 10
Israeli writer Shmuel Yosef Agnon receives the Nobel Prize in Literature with a German-Jewish author, Nelly Sachs.

Ben Gurion University of the Negev is opened.
Heavy fighting along Israel-Syria borders.
April 7
Israeli aircraft shoot down 7 Syrian Migs.
April 11
Security Council deplores Arab attacks on Israel.
May 7-14
Reports circulating in Tel Aviv of pending Israeli attack against Syria
May 13
UAR recieves intelligence reports, apprarantly from Soviets, warning of Israeli attack on Syria.
May 14
Nasser declares alert in Egypt and bolsters his forces in Sinai. UAR chief-of-staff flies to Damascus.
May 15
Egyptian forces continue pouring into Sinai, UAR forces stand on alert, deployment begins.
May 16
Israeli's begin to show concern over UAR deployments towards Sinai . Propoganda campaign begins in UAR and spreads across the Arab world.
May 17
Egyptian President Nasser orders UN forces to evacuate the Gaza Strip and Sinai. Reports of UAR troops being withdrawn from Yemen to Sinai. Israel begins mobilization.
May 18
UAR calls for the United Nations Emergency Force to withdraw from Egyptian territory.
May 19
UN Emergency Force withdrawn at Egypt's request. Israel declares partial mobilization.
May 20
Nasser declares alert in Egypt and state of emergency in Gaza. Unites with 111 other Arab nations two of which (Syria and Iraq) openly called for the destruction of Israel. Sixth fleet carrier task groups directed to move eastward towards Crete.
May 21
UAR mobilizes reserves.
May 22
Egypt declares the Straits of Tiran closed to Israeli shipping.
May 23
Eshkol warns Egypt of gravity of blockade.
May 23
Security Council adjourns, having failed to take any action on Middle East crisis.
May 30
Egypt and Jordan sign mutual defence pact in Cairo.
June 1
National Unity Government formed; Moshe Dayan appointed Defense Minister.
June 2
Joint-Chiefs-of-Staff permits Sixth Fleet to commence in-port upkeep periods, reflecting relaxation of tensions.
June 3
Iraq joins UAR-Jordan defense pact.
June 4
UAR and Iraq forces enter Jordan
June 5

Israeli air force pre-emptively attacks Egyptian, Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air force bases; efectively neutralizing them. IDF ground forces attack Egyptian forces in Sinai and the Gaza Strip. Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol conveys message to King Hussein of Jordan through UN Chief of Staff in Jerusalem that Israel has no intentions of attacking Jordan.

At 10:20 Jordan launches attack on Israel.Following Jordanian artillery and small arms attacks and a Jordanian incursion into the DMZ in Jerusalem, IDF forces commence operations against Jordanian military positions in Judea, Samaria, and Jerusalem.

MOLINK exchanges with Soviet leaders begins. UAR and Jordan begin concocting and disseminating false intervention charge. Crisis in Benghazi where British troops rescue trapped Americans. Crisis at Wheelus AB.

June 6
Egyptian forces continue pouring into Sinai. Initial U.S. military moves negative, to avoid giving impression of U.S. intervantion. JCS disapproves movement of Amphibious Force from Malta,. Algeria, UAR, Syria, Sudan, and Yemen break relations with the U.S. Algeria and Kuwait ban all shipments to the U.S. and the U.K.
June 7
Jerusalem reunited.
June 8

IDF completes deployment in Sinai (including the Gaza Strip). Cease-fire declared with Egypt and Jordan as fighting continues with Syria. USS Liberty mistankenly attacked by Israeli Air Force.

June 9
IDF forces move against Syrian forces on the Golan Heights.
President Nasser resigns, withdraws resignation some hours later.
June 10
IDF completes deployment in the Golan Heights; cease-fire declared with Syria. USSR and other East European nations, except Rumania, sever diplomatic ties with Israel.
June 12
Israel announces it will not withdraw to 1949 armistice lines before peace is achieved by direct negotiations.
June 19
President Johnson Outlines 5 point U.S. peace plan.
June 27
Knesset passes the Protection of Holy Places Law.
June 28
Israel proclaims unification of Jerusalem.
Draft resolutions denouncing Israel as aggressor, calling for evacuation of liberated territory are rejected by the General Assembly.
Arab summit in Khartoum state: No negotiations with Israel, no peace with Israel and no recognition of Israel.
Open Bridges policy across the Jordan River bridges, for goods and people, is instituted.
September 1
Arab summit conference in Khartum proclaims policy of no peace, no recognition and no negotiations with Israel.
October 12
Sea-to-sea missiles fired from Egyptian missile boats sink Israeli destroyer "Eilat."
October 25
Israeli artillery destroys Egyptian oil refineries in Suez.
November 22
UN General Assembly Resolution 242 is adopted.

Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel: 1968-70.
Israel TV transmits its first broadcast, the 20th Independence Day military parade.
Jews return to Gush Etzion, abandoned after its capture by the Jordanians in 1948.
Jews return to Hebron, abandoned after the Jewish massacres in 1929.
Polish government outlaws Jewish language and institutions.
January 27
The Israeli Navy submarine Dakar and crew disappear at sea en route from England.
February 7
Eshkol ends two days of talks with President Johnson in Texas.
March 12
Nasser proclaims three stage doctrine of struggle against Israel.

Israeli army attack on PLO base at Karameh, Jordan.

May 26
First Jerusalem Day celebrated.
June 22
Prime Minister Levi Eshkol declares that the Jordan River is Israel's security border.
Labor party is formed from the union of MapaiAhdut Ha'avodah andRafi.
July 17

PLO's Palestinian National Council adopt covenant calling for Israel's destruction.

July 22
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) carries out the first hijacking, diverting an El Al flight to Algiers. 32 Jewish passengers were held hostage for 5 weeks.
Ba'thists seize power in Iraq.
September 4
One killed and seventy-one wounded by three bombs that exploded in Tel Aviv.

Hijacking for El Al aircraft en route to Algeria.

October 8
Foreign Minister Eban offers nine point peace plan at UN General Assembly. Egypt rejects plan and demands that Ambassador Jarring work out a timetable for Israeli withdrawl from disputed areas.
October 27
Fighting breaks out again along Suez Canal, Suez oil refineries again hit.
November 19
Israel allows return to disputed areas thousands of refugees who fled to Jordan in the Six Day War.
November 22
Twelve killed and fifty-two injured by a car bomb in the Mahaneh Yehuda market, Jerusalem.
December 2
Heavy fighting erupts on Israel-Jordan borders.
December 4
Israel aircraft attack Iraqi artillery units in Jordan.
December 26
Arab terrorists attack Israeli airliner in Athens.
December 27
U.S. announces sale of Phanton jets to Israel.
December 28
IDF raids Beirut airport, destroying 13 airliners without loss of life.

February 18
Israeli airliner attacked in Zurich.
February 21
Two killed and twenty injured by a bomb detonated in a crowded market in Jerusalem.
February 26
Levi Eshkol dies suddenly.
February 4
Yasser Arafat elected chairman of the PLO.
March 7
Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister after Eshkol's death.
April 19
Soviet missiles installed in Egypt, following announcement by Nasser that Egypt has completed rehabilitation of its army and is moving to stage of active defense.
April 23
Egypt repudiates cease-fire along Suez Canal.
May 11
Jordan forbids terrorist raids against Israel from its territory, following Israel warning and raids.
July 7

UN Secretary General U Thant proclaims that war of attrition is taking place along Suez Canal.

July 20
Israel airforce begins bombing targets inside Egypt.
July 31
Israel repels Syrian attack in Golan Heights.
August 21
Al-Aqsa Mosque damaged by arson.
August 23
Nasser calls for all out war against Israel.
August 29
American airliner hijacked to Damascus; two Israeli passengers detained .
September 1
Coup d'etat in Libya overthrows monarchy. Moammer Qaddafi heads Revolutionary Command Council.
Secret U.S.-USSR talks on Middle East peace. Talks fail when Nasser rejects plan.
October 13
Israel proposes home rule for West Bank, retaining responsibility for security.
October 22
Four killed and twenty wounded by terrorist bombs in five apartments.
October 28
Elections to the Seventh Knesset.
December 9
U.S. Secretary of State Rogers announces American Plan for peace in the Middle East.
December 12
Israel rejects Rogers plan.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1970 - 1979)

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Click on a Year: 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 |1979
Other Periods: 1940's | 1950's | 1960's | 1980's | 1990's | 2000's | 2010's

Israel participates in the Soccer World Cup finals.
February 2
Heavy fighting on Golan Heights
February 22
Palestinian terrorists blow up Swissair jet in mid air
USSR steps up missile shipment to Egypt
Israel announces Soviet pilots are flying operational missions for Egyptian airforce
May 9
Israel warns against installation of Soviet missiles close to Suez Canal
May 22
Terrorists attack schoolbus, killing 12 (9 of whom were children), and wounding 24 in Avivim, Israel.
June 25
Secretary Rogers discloses U.S. initiative to end war of attrition along Suez Canal for 90 days and resumption of stalled Jarring mission
July 23
Egypt, after Nasser visit to Moscow, accepts U.S. initiative
July 26
Jordan accepts U.S. initiative
August 4
Israel accepts U.S. initiative, is assured of continued military and economic aid from the U.S.
August 7
Cease-fire goes into effect on Suez Canal
August 7
Egypt violates cease-fire by moving missiles into “stand-still” zone. Israel protests to U.S.
August 8
American-brokered cease-fire ends War of Attrition with Egypt
Refusenicks are sentenced to death in the USSR for hijacking an airplane.
Heavy fighting between Jordanian army and Palestinian terrorists. Syria invades Jordan. U.S. moves Sixth Fleet to Eastern Mediterranean
Black September: clashes between Jordanian forces and the PLO, in an attempt by the PLO to take control of the country, end in Jordanian victory; the PLO regroups in Lebanon.
September 6
Three airliners holding over 400 passengers were hijacked, and taken to the Jordanian airport by the PFLP. The hostages were released in exchange for terrorists held in Germany, Switzerland, and England
September 16
Hussein proclaims martial law in Jordan and installs military governments to fight terrorists
September 18
Prime Minister Meir meets President Nixon. Israel refuses to return to Jarring talks until Egyptian missiles are withdrawn
September 27
Arab heads of state agree on formula to end hostitilies in Jordan
September 28
President Nasser dies, succeeded by Anwar Sadat
November 5
UN General Assembly calls for 90 day extension of cease-fire and resumption of Jarring talks

The Black Panthers movement becomes active in Israel among North African Jews, and begins protesting against social conditions; violent demonstrations erupt in Jerusalem.
The three millionth citizen arrives in Israel.
Demands of Soviet Jews to immigrate to Israel continue to intensify.
February 15
Sadat formally informs Jarring Egypt willing to envisage peace arrangement with Israel - on his conditions.
February 26
Israel informs Jarring it is keen to negotiate peace arrangements with Arab states but cannot give prior committments on borders and other items to be negotiated. Jarring mission deadlocked
Fighting erupts again in Jordan between the King's forces and Palestinian terrorists
April 17
Egypt, Syria and Libya sign agreement to form Federation of Arab Republics
May 27
Egypt and USSR sign 15-year treaty of friendship and co-operation.
July 23
Sadat is granted full powers by Arab Socialist Union to take action to recover Arab lands from Israel.
August 12
Syria breaks off diplomatic ties with Jordan following border clashes
November 28
Jordanian Premier Wasfi Tal assassinated in Cairo by Palestinian terrorists.
December 2
Prime Minister Golda Meir meets President Nixon in Washington

Ordination of first (Reform) Jewish woman rabbi in U.S.
March 15
Hussein announces plan to make Jordan federal state. Israel, Egypt,Jordan, Libya reject the plan
April 6
Egypt breaks off diplomatic relations with Jordan because of Hussein's federal plan.
Special paratrooper unit of the IDF, dressed as Arabs, free hostages on a hijacked Sabena plane in Lod.
May 9
Palestinian-inspired Japanese terrorists murder 27 people (including 21 Christian pilgrims from Puerto Rico) at Lod Airport.
July 18
Sadat terminates services of Soviet military advisers
Stepped up Soviet military shipments to Jordan, including misiles for the defense of Damascus
September 5
Eleven Israeli athletes are murdered at the Munich Olympic Gamesby Black September, a terrorist group affiliated with Fatah. (The same group also hijacks a plane en route to Tel Aviv and holds the passengers and crew hostage for 23 hours. The hostages are rescued by IDF counterrorism commandos.)
October 15
Israel strikes at terrorist bases in Jordan and Lebanon
October 29
West Germany releases Munich killers after German airliner is hijacked
November 1
USSR agrees to restore missiles to Egypt's air defence system

Conservative Movement's Committee on Jewish Laws and Standards (CJLS) of the Rabbinical Assembly approves minority opinion allowing women to count in a minyan; by 1996, fully 83% of Conservative synagogues counted women in their minyan.
Saudi government buys 25% participation interest in Aramco.
March 1
Prime Minister Meir meets President Nixon in Washington
March 1
Palestinian terrorists kill U.S. Ambassador, his deputy head of mission, and Belgian diplomat in Khartum
March 28
Sadat proclaims himself military governor of Egypt, and declares martial law
May 24
Ephraim Kazir becomes Israel's fourth president.
September 13
Thirteen Syrian MIG-21 planes downed in aerial battle off Syrian coast.
October 6
The Yom Kippur War begins with Egyptian and Syrian forces attacking across 1967 ceasefire lines (Egypt crosses Suez Canal, Syrian forces attack Golan Heights
October 6-7
First naval battle in history fought with only missiles between Israel and Jordan. All Syrian ships sunk; no Israeli losses.
October 7
Syrian attack contained
October 8
Israeli counter-offensive in Sinai fails
October 10
Syrian forces driven back in Golan. Israel stablizes new line in Sinai
October 12
IDF advances to within 28 miles from Damascus
October 13
IDF repels Jordanian and Iraqi forces fighting with Syrians in the Golan Heights
October 15
First IDF forces cross Suez Cana
Countering massive sea and air lift of Soviet arms to Egypt andJordan, U.S. starts air lift to Israel
Israel's military attache in Washington is killed by terrorists.
October 17
Arab Oil Embargo announced. Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on U.S. and Netherlands.
October 17
Sadat proposes a cease-fire
October 19
President Nixon asks Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion for emergency aid to Israel
October 20
Israel expands its bridgehead on West Bank of Suez Canal, besieging Third Egyptian Army
October 22
UN Resolution 338 is passed. First cease-fire declared on southern front. Fighting continues
October 24
Second cease-fire declared on southern front; cease-fire on northern front.
October 25
President Nixon orders world-wide alert as fear of Soviet military intervention on Egypt's behalf mounts.
October 25
Security Council establishes UNEF to supervise cease fire.
October 31
Premier Meir arrives in Washington for talks with President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger
November 11
Truce agreement (6 point agreement for the stabilisation of the cease-fire) signed with Egypt at "Kilometer 101."
November 15
Exchange of POWs with Egypt.
November 18
Governement decides to set up state commission of inquiry (Agranat Commission) into the beginnning of the war.
December 1
David Ben-Gurion dies and is buried at his home in Kibbutz Sde Boker in the Negev.
December 21
Geneva Peace conference on Middle East opens.
December 31
Election of the Eighth Knesset.

Shuttle diplomacy by Dr. Kissinger to bring about Israel-Egypt separation of forces agreement
January 18
Israel-Egypt separation of forces agreement is signed in kilometer 101 on the Cairo-Suez road
January 18
Sinai Disengagement Agreement signed between Israel and Egypt.
Continued war of attrition along the Israel-Syria cease-fire line
March 4
Israeli army deployed along new lines in Sinai in accordance with disengagement agreement
March 18
Arab states lift oil embargo on the U.S.
Saudi government incesases its participation interest in Aramco to 60%.
April 11
In Kiryat Shemona, Israel, 18 are killed, 8 of whom were children, by PFLP terrorists who detonated their explosives during a failed rescue attempt by Israeli authorities.
Golda Meir’s government resigns, including Defense Minister Moshe Dayan and Foreign Minister Abba Eban, after the criticism of the government's handling of the Yom Kippur War.
May 15
Terrorists murder 26 people (22 of them children) at a school in Ma'alot.
May 31
Golan Heights Disengagement Agreement signed between Jordan and Israel.
June 3
Yitzhak Rabin becomes Prime Minister.
June 16
U.S. President Nixon visits Israel. First visit from U.S. president.
June 18
IDF completes its withdrawal from the “Syrian bulge” in the framework of the Israel-Syria Disengagement of Forces agreement
July 1
Rabin proclaims there is no room for another state between Israel andJordan
U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation is founded.
Ordination of first Reconstructionist Jewish woman rabbi, Sandy Eisenberg Sasso. She serves a joint Conservative-Reconstructionist-affiliated congregation, making her the first woman rabbi to serve a Conservative congregation.
August 10
President Ford assures Israel the U.S. will honor its committments
September 10-13
Prime Minister Rabin pays an official visit to Washington, holds talks with President Ford and senior administration officials.
October 14
The General Assembly votes 105 against 4 to invite the PLO to participate in the debate on the “Palestine question.”
October 26-30
Arab summit conference in Rabat determines that the PLO is the sole representative of the Palestinian Arabs and removes Jordan from a future role in the West Bank
November 1
Reacting to the Rabat decisions, Israel announces there will be no talks with the PLO
November 13
Arafat before the General Assembly calls for the liquidation of Israel and the establishment of a “secular democratic Palestine”
November 18
An IAF helicopter crashes in Haifa bay. The crew survives.
November 20
UNESCO condemns Israel for its archaeological digs in Jerusalem.
November 22
PLO receives observer status at the UN.
December 10
71 Senators condemn recent UN resolutions against Israel

Good Fence Policy instituted between Israel and Lebanon.
Israel unveils its first locally manufactured figher jet, the Kfir, on Independence Day.
The 100,000th immigrant from the USSR arrives.
The West Bank city of Ma'ale Adumim is founded.
Settlers establish the town of Elon Moreh without the authorization of the government, which evacuates them.
Saudi, Kuwaiti, and Venezuelan concessions come to an end.
March 6
Terrorists murder 18 civilians and three IDF soldiers in an attack on aTel Aviv hotel
March 22
Talks with Secretary Kissinger are suspended. President Ford announces a review of U.S. arms deliveries to Israel
March 29
Sadat announces the opening of the Suez Canal on June 5
April 10
President Ford pledges another effort for peace in the Middle East
April 13
The start of the 1975-76 civil war in Lebanon
May 11
Israel and the European Economic Community sign an agreement giving Israel Associate Membership
July 4
Terorist bomb kills 15 people (including two children) at Zion Square in Jerusalem.
June 5
The Suez Canal is reopened for navigation
June 10-11
Rabin holds talks in Washington with President Ford
“Black Muslims” in America cultivate Sunni recognition.
President Gerald Ford signs legislation including the Jackson-Vanik Amendment, which ties U.S. trade benefits to the Soviet Union tofreedom of emigration for Jews.
First residents move into Yamit
September 1
Second Sinai agreement signed with Egypt. Israel-Egypt interim agreement is signed in Jerusalem and Alexandria. An Israel-U.S. protocol is also signed.
Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.
October 10
Israel signs the military protocol after U.S. Congress approves U.S. presence in Sinai. Abu Rudeis oil field handed to Egypt
October 22
Joint Israel-Egypt military commission meets for the first time in Sinai
November 10
UN General Assembly passes a resolution declaring Zionism to be a form of racism.
November 13
Terrorist bomb in Jerusalem kills seven.

January 12
The Security Council opens Middle East debate. PLO invites, Israel boycotts the sessions.
The U.S. vetoes a draft resolution in the Security Council. The discussion ends with no resolution being adopted.
January 26-29
Prime Minister Rabin pays an official visit to the U.S., addresses a joint session of Congress
February 22
IDF completes withdrawl under the Interim Agreement
March 22
The U.S. vetoes an anti-Israel draft resolution at the conclusion of a Security Council discussion on the situation in the West Bank
March 30
Land Day is marked by Israeli Arabs for the first time.
April 12
Elections are held in 24 municipal and local councils in the West Bank
June 27
Air France airliner enroute from Tel Aviv to Paris is hijacked after a stop over in Athens. It is flown to Entebbe.
July 3-4
IDF troops mount dramatic rescue of hostages taken to Entebbe, Uganda. Three passengers and the commander are killed during the operation.
July 11
Israeli Rina Mor wins the Miss Universe competition.
August 5
Israel and the U.S. initial an agreement for the supply to Israel of two nuclear reactors.
August 11
Terrorists attack El Al passengers in Istanbul airport
At its sixty-sixth session held in Cairo, the Arab League Council accepts Palestine, as represented by the PLO, as a full member of the Arab League equal to all other members
December 10
The General Assembly adopts a resolution for a nuclear free zone in the Middle East
December 21
Prime Minister Rabin submits his government's resignation, after controversy erupted when F-15 fighters landed after the onset of Shabbat.

The first Jewish civilian settlement in Gaza is built
U.S. Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund  (BARD) and the Binational Industrial R&D  (BIRD) Foundation are established.
March 7-9
Prime Minister Rabin visits Washington for talks with President Carter
March 9
President Carter announces new U.S. policy for the Middle East
April 7
Yitzchak Rabin announces his resignation as Labor Party leader following allegations of foreign currency violations.
April 7
Maccabi Tel Aviv basketball team wins European championship for the first time.
May 10
A Yassur helicopter crashes during exercise near Jericho and 54 paratroops are killed.
The United States adopts anti-boycott legislation.
May 17
Likud party wins elections held for the Ninth Knesset. This markes the first loss of power for the Labor Party.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years ofLabor rule. Menachem Begin becomes Prime Minister.
July 6
The U.S. rejects Israeli request to sell 24 Kfir fighter-bombers to Ecuador.
July 13
Sadat says he will end the state of war with Israel only after complete Israeli withdrawl and will consider a peace treaty 5 years after last Israeli soldier leaves the territories.
July 19-21
Prime Minister Begin and President Carter confer in Washington and reach agreement on the need for Israel to negotiate with the Arab states in the framwork of a Geneva conference in the fall of 1977.
August 8
Carter says that if PLO accepts Resolution 242 in its entirety, the U.S. would then start discussions with this organization.
August 9
Israel rejects any idea of PLO participation in the peace negotiations even if it accepts Resolution 242.
October 1
U.S. and the Soviet Union issue a joint communique on the Middle East, which is welcomed by Arabs and criticized by Israel.
October 28
Israel government launches new economic program, floats the pound and makes it freely convertible, controls on foreign currency abolished.
November 9
Israeli jets attack PLO base near Tyre. President Sadat announces his readiness to come to Jerusalem to address the Knesset.
November 11
Begin broadcasts to the Egyptian people and invites Sadat to Jerusalem for peace talks.
November 15
Begin sends written invitation to Sadat to come to Jerusalem. Sadat says his trip is a holy mission.
November 19
Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
November 20
After praying at the al Aksa mosque Egyptian President Sadataddresses the Knesset calling for Israeli withdrawal and the establishment of a Palestinain state.
November 21
Sadat meets with Knesset factions and in a press conference with Begin calls on Israel to make drastic decisions to reciprocate his visit. Begin-Sadat agreed communique says “no more wars.” Sadat leaves for Cairo.
December 5
Egypt severs diplomatic relations with Jordan, Iraq, Libya, Algeria and South Yemen in retaliation for their decision to suspend relations with Egypt in protest against Sadat's initiative. The “rejectionist” Arab states conclude a 5-day summit meeting in Tripoli.
December 14
Cairo conference opens. PM Begin arrives in U.S. for talks with President Carter on the Israel peace plan.
December 16-17
Begin and Carter confer in Washington. Sadat invites Begin for talks with him in Egypt
December 25
Prime Minister Menachem Begin confers with Egyptian President Sadat in Ismailiya, Egypt.
December 26
Ismaliya summit concluded with a joint Begin-Sadat press conference. Disagreement over the Palestinian issue prevented a joint communique.
December 28
Carter praises Begin peace plan, but prefers a Palestinian homeland or entity linked to Jordan.

Israel wins the Eurovision Song Contest.
January 1
Karnei Shomron settled by Gush Emunim.
January 4
Carter and Sadat meet in Aswan, issue the “Aswan proclamation” calling for the recognition of the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people and their participation in the determination of their future.
February 2
Carter administration will propose to Congress a package deal for the sale of jet plans to Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
February 15

U.S. threatens to withdraw Israel request for jet planes if Congress blocks sale to Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

March 11
Coastal Road Massacre: Arab terrorists hijack buses on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road leaving 37 civilians dead and scores injured. Begin postpones his U.S. visit and Weizman returns home.
March 13
PLO forces flee Southern Lebanon. Beirut calls on UN to ward off an Israeli attack, U.S. declines to cite PLO as responsible for the bus attack.
March 14
Israel Defense Force crosses the Lebanese border, seizes a strip of 7 miles along the border. Begin says IDF will remain in Lebanon until an agreeement reached ensuring the area no longer serve as terrorist base.
March 16
Operation Litani launched in southern Lebanon
March 19
IDF takes over entire Southern Lebanon to the Litani River as U.S. seeks Security Council Resolution that will dispatch an international force to replace the IDF. Security Council adopts Resolution 425 calling for immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon and the stationing of a UN force there.
March 21-22
Begin and Carter hold two days of talks in White House. U.S. and Israel are in disagreement over a number of issues. UN forces arrive in Southern Labnon.
April 11
IDF starts withdrawl from Lebanon
Peace Now is founded.
April 19
Yizhak Navon become Israel's fifth president.
Yiddish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer receives Nobel Prize.
May 15
The Diaspora Museum opens in Tel Aviv
May 16
Senate approves the sale of warplanes to Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Israel expresses its regret, Arab leaders are pleased.
July 9
Egypt transmits to Israel its Six Point Peace Plan based on the return of Gaza to Egypt and the West Bank to Jordan. Israel rejects the plan.
Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
September 6-17
The Camp David conference ends in the signing, at the White House, of two agreements: the first dealing with an Israel-Egypt peace treaty and the restoration of Sinai to the latter; the second, a framework agreement establishing a format for negotions on a five-year autonomy regime in the West Bank and Gaza region. Israel-Egypt peace talks to begin shortly with the aim of signing the treaty no later than 17 December.
September 25
The Israeli Government approves the Camp David agreements by an 11-2 vote. Commerce and Industry Minister Hurwitz resigns.
September 27
The Knesset approves the Camp David agreement by a vote of 84 for, 19 against, 17 abstentations.
October 12
Opening of the talks at Blair House on the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. Talks run into difficulties over teh linkage between the treaty and developments in teh West Bank and Gaza; oil supply for Israel, a target date for teh establishment of the autonomy and Egypt's demands for early Israeli withdrawal.
November 21
The Israel Government adopts the text of the Peace Treaty, but Egyptintroduces new demands regarding teh stages of withdrawal from Sinai and the oil rights Israel is to have on wells it discovered and developed in Sinai.
American neo-Nazis receive permission to march in Skokie. After Supreme Court denies Skokie's request to cancel the march, the Nazis hold a rally in Marquette Park, Chicago instead.
Natan Sharansky is convicted of espionage and receives a 13 year sentence.
December 10
Prime Minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat are awarded theNobel Peace Prize.

The Hebrew University returns to its rebuilt pre-1948 campus on Mount Scopus.
JTS Faculty Senate tables issue of ordaining women because of “provoking unprecedented divisions . . . . The bitter divergence of opinion threatens to inflict irreparable damage.”
A revolution in Iran forces the Shah to flee and an Islamic Republic is created under Ayatollah Khomeini. Americans are taken hostage and held for 444 days in the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
March 1-4
Begin-Carter talks in the White House. After initial serious disagreement, a last minute solution is reached on some remaining issues.
March 10-13
President Carter visits Israel and wins additional concessions from Israel.
March 14
President Sadat accepts the last minute changes brought from Jerusalem by President Carter, thus paving the way for teh signing of the peace treaty.
March 19
The Israel Government approves the text of the peace treaty.
March 22
The Knesset approves the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, by a vote of 95 for, 18 against, 2 abstentations, 3 absent.
March 26
Peacy treaty between Egypt and Israel signed in Washington, D.C.
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed and Arab relations with Egypt are severed.
April 2-3
Prime Minister Begin pays an official visit to Cairo, meets with President Sadat.
April 30
The first Israeli vessel flying the Israeli flag sails through the Suez Canal. President Carter again terms Israeli settlements in Judea and Samaria an obstacle to peace and contrary to international law.
May 25
El Arish is handed over to Egypt within the implementation of the first phase of Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Israeli and Egyptian negotiators meet in Beersheva for the first round of the autonomy talks in the presence of Secretary of State Vance.
June 27
In an air battle over Lebanon, Israeli air force plans down six Syrian MIG 21's.
July 2-3
Newly appointed U.S. special envoy for the autonomy talks, Robert Strauss, meets with Prime Minister Begin in Jerusalem and President Sadat in Alexandria.
July 10-12
Prime Minister Begin and President Sadat meet for two days of talks in Alexandria.
July 19
The U.S. and the USSR agree to replace UNEF in Sinai by UNTSO. Three days later Israel announces its objections to the plan.
July 24
The Security Council terminates the mandate of UNEF. Members of this force will be replaced by UNTSO. Israel opposes the plan saying it is not an acceptable alternative multi-national force. Israel's objections are termed by the U.S. as “misconceptions.”
August 3
The IDF destroys three terrorist bases in southern Lebanon.
September 24
Israel air force planes, on a reconnaissance flight over Lebanon, clash with and down four Syrian MIG 21's.
November 7
Ambassador Sol Linowitz succeeds Robert Strauss as the U.S. special envoy for the autonomous talks.
November 15
Mt. Sinai and the Saint Catharine region are returned to Egypt two months ahead of schedule.
November 25
Israel returns the Alma oil field in A-Tour to Egypt.
December 31
Following a meeting between President Carter and Defense MinisterWeizman, the U.S. announces the addition of $200 million to the $2.2 billion loan included in the special aid to Israel in teh wake of the Israel-Egypt peace treaty
Saddam Hussein becomes Iraq's head of state.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1980 - 1989)

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Saudi government acquires 100% participation interest in Aramco.

January 5
Egypt appoints Saad Mortada as its first ambassador to Israel. Dr. Eliyahu Ben Elissar will be Israel's first ambassador to Egypt.
February 10

The Israeli cabinet affirms the right of Israeli Jews to settle inHebron.

February 18

Embassy of Israel opens in Cairo.

February 21
The first Egyptian diplomats arrive in Israel to open the Egyptian embassy in Tel Aviv
February 24

The lira is replaced by the shekel (1 shekel = 10 lirot).

March 1

The Security Council adopts a resolution calling on Israel to dismantle existing settlements and discontinue establishing new settlements. The U.S. votes in favor. Later President Carter disavowed the vote saying it was the result of communication failure.

March 3

Israel inaugurates commercial air links with Egypt. Israeli and Egyptian officials initial in Cairo a five year cooperation agreement in the spheres of culture, education and science.

March 11
An Israel-Egypt agreement on tourism is signed in Cairo.
March 14

An Israel-Egypt civil aviation agreement is initiliated in Tel Aviv.

March 18

A contract for the sale of Egyptian oil to Israel is signed in Cairo.

March 30

An Israel-Egypt transportation agreement is signed in Tel Avivregulating sea and land movement of people and goods.

April 30

The U.S. vetoes a Security Council draft resolution calling for the creation of a Palestinian state

May 2

Terrorists in Hebron kill seven Jewish students and wound 16 others. The mayors of Hebron and Halhoul are deported to Lebanon for incitement.

May 8

The Security Council votes for a resolution calling on Israel to rescind the deportation of the mayors of Hebron and Halhoul. The U.S. abstains

May 25

In an interview in The Washington Post Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabiasays that if Israel would declare its intention to withdraw from areas occupied in 1967, “Saudi Arabia would do its utmost to bring the Arabs to cooperate and work for a full settlement.” Begin invites Fahd to come to Jerusalem and address the Knesset.

June 2

Two West Bank mayors are injured in bombings by members of the Jewish underground.

July 30

Basic Law: “Jerusalem, Capital of Israel” is passed, strengthening the 1967 annexation of the eastern part of the city.

August 20

The Security Council votes to condemn Israel for the passage of the Jerusalem law and urged all nations not to recognize it. The U.S. abstains.

September 20

A conference of Islamic foreign ministers is held in Fez. They agree on a plan to force Israel out of the UN and to lead a holy war against Israel.

October 17

Israel and the U.S. sign an agreement guaranteeing the supply of oil to Israel in times of specified emergencies.

December 31

Israeli planes strike at terrorist bases in southern Lebanon. Two Syrian planes are shot down.

January 28

Six Israelis are wounded by Katyusha rockets fired at Kiryat Shmona from Lebanon.

March 2

Israeli jets attack terrorist targets near Tyre following katyusha attack on Kiryat Shmona.

March 27

Maccabi Tel-Aviv basketball team wins European Champions' Cup.

April 28

Israeli jets down two Syrian helicopters near Zahla in Lebanon. Prime Minister Begin explained the action as an effort to prevent Syrian domination of Lebanon

April 29

Syria introduces S.A. 6 ground to air missiles into the Bekka Valley in Lebanon. Israeli planes attack targets in south Lebanon

June 7

Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor at Osirak just before it is to become operative.

June 10

The U.S. suspends arms deliveries to Israel in the wake of the Baghdad raid.

June 20

The Security Council condemns Israel for the raid on the Iraqi nuclear reactor.

June 30

Israel elects the tenth Knesset. Likud wins 48 seats, Labor 47. PM Begin starts talks for the formation of the new government.

July 15

In heavy shelling of northern Galilee, 3 Israelis are killed in Nahariyah and 17 wounded in Kiryat Shmona.

July 24

Israel accepts a cease fire proposal brought by Ambassador Habib. In ten days of shelling six Israelis were killed, 65 wounded. Heavy damage caused to homes, factories and public buildings.

September 6-16

Prime Minister Begin, accompanied by Ministers ShamirSharon, and Burg visit Washington for talks with President Reagan and his senior advisors on U.S. arms sale to Saudi Arabia and U.S.-Israel strategic cooperation agreement.

October 6

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated in Cairo. Israeli leaders eulogize the late president. Hosni Mubarak succeeds him.

October 27

Israel and Egypt conclude three days of discussions on the normalization process, led by Defense Minister Sharon and Egyptian Foreign Minister Kamal Hassan Ali. Series of agreements are signed.

October 29

Israeli condemns a U.S. Senate vote to approve sale of AWACS toSaudi Arabia.

November 2

In a speech to the Knesset, Prime Minister Begin rejects Prince Fahd 8 Point Peace Plan.

November 30

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed with U.S. for military and civilian cooperation.

December 14

The United States sells AWACS radar planes to Saudi Arabia after a divisive battle with the pro-Israel lobby.
Golan Heights Law passed.

December 18
The U.S. suspends the implementation of the strategic cooperation agreement. The Security Council calls on Israel to rescind forthwith the Golan Heights Law.


OPEC's first quotas established .

February 2
The U.N. General Assembly condemns Israel for the passage of theGolan Heights Law.
February 15

The Knesset expressed its regret over U.S. sale of F-16 and Hawk missiles to Jordan.


Israel proceeds to dismantle and remove its civilian settlements in northern Sinai.

April 3

An Israeli diplomat is assassinated by terrorists in Paris.


Students and a few families are the last holdouts in Yamit. About 200 soldiers clash with 200 protesters barricaded on roofs.

April 21

Israel downs two Syrian MIGs over Lebanon, bombs terrorist bases in Sidon.

April 23

The Sinai town of Yamit is leveled, completing withdrawal from Sinai.

April 25

Israel's three-stage withdrawal from Sinai completed. President Reagan congratulates President Mubarak and Prime Minister Begin on the new phase of Israel-Egypt ties.

May 9

Israeli jets bomb terrorist targets in southern Lebanon for the first time since July 24, 1981. Northern and Western Galilee are shelled by PLO artillery.

May 16

The Israeli embassy in Kinshasa, Zaire, is re-opened after diplomatic ties resumed.

June 3

Israel's ambassador to London, Shlomo Argov, is wounded in aPalestinian terrorist attack.

June 4

Israeli airplanes raid terrorist targets in Beirut and southern Lebanon. The PLO retaliates by massive artillery bombardment of the entire northern border causing heavy damage.

June 6

Operation Peace for the Galilee (June 1982) removes Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists from Lebanon.

June 6

IDF units cross the Lebanese border and advance along the coastal road to Tyre, reach Nabatiya in central Lebanon and move into Fatahland in the east.

June 7

The IDF continues its advance, captures the Beaufort Castle and clashes with the Syrian army. The navy lands tanks and infantry north of Sidon.

June 8

Sidon falls to the IDF whose advance units reach Damur, while other units advance towards the Beirut-Damascus road. The Knessetrejects (by 94 votes) a no-confidence motion. 6 Syrian MIGs are downed.

June 9

U.S. vetoes a Security Council draft resolution condemning the Israeli operation. 19 Syrian ground to air missile batteries are destroyed by the Israel Air Force in the Bekaa Valley. 22 Syrian planes are downed. IDF reaches Lake Karoun in the Bekaa Valley and the vicinity of Beirut's international airport.

June 10

President Reagan demands an immediate cease fire. The government, in an emergency session, accepts his call. IDF reaches the Beirut Damascus road.

June 13

Israel proposes an arrangement for southern Lebanon to include the stationing of a multinational force.

June 21

Prime Minister Begin holds talks with President Reagan in the White House.

June 26

In an emergency session, the UN General Assembly adopts a resolution calling for an end to hostilities and immediate unconditional withdrawal of Israel from Lebanon (127 to 2).

July 4

The IDF begins to besiege West Beirut, cutting off power and water. Israel allows Ambassador Habib additional time to continue his efforts to bring about the PLO withdrawal.

July 19

President Reagan orders the hold up of cluster bombs for Israel.

July 25

The Israel Air Force destroys three ground-to-air Syrian SAM batteries in the Bekaa Valley. Israel jets continue to bombard terrorist targets in West Beirut.

July 30

The Security Council adopts a resolution calling on Israel to lift the siege from Beirut. The U.S. is absent from the vote. Israel expresses the hope for a peaceful solution for the PLO evacuation from Beirut.

August 2

In a meeting with Foreign Minister ShamirPresident Reagandemands that Israel cease all hostilities in Beirut. Israel agrees to allow Ambassador Habib additional time for his diplomatic efforts.

August 4

IDF intensifies the siege of West Beirut, occupying additional positions overlooking that area. 18 Israeli soldiers die in these battles. President Reagan demands of Mr. Begin an immediate halt to the shelling of Beirut threatening to review U.S.-Israel relations.

August 12

Israeli jets carry out massive air raids on Beirut. President Reaganphones Prime Minister Begin demanding an end to the bombing. PM Begin agrees to halt the raids.

August 19

The Government approves the agreement. The PLO withdrawal to begin on 21 August and be completed by 1 September. At an emergency session of the UN General Assembly, a resolution is adopted (by 107 in favor, 5 against and 27 abstentations) calling in fact for the creation of a Palestinian state. Israel announces its objection to any change in Resolution 242.

23 August

Bashir Gemayel is elected President of Lebanon. His inaugural date is set for 23 September.

September 1

Prime Minister Begin holds talks with Bashir Gemayel in Nahariya. Gemayel rejects his call for the signing of an Israel-Lebanon peace treaty. The PLO withdrawal from Beirut is completed.

September 1

President Reagan offers a Middle East Peace Plan.

September 2
The Cabinet rejects the Reagan Plan, claiming it contradicts and negates the Camp David agreements. PM Begin meets with Defense Secretary Weinberger in Jerusalem.
September 4

8 Israeli soldiers are kidnapped in Lebanon.

September 13

Israeli jets attack Syrian and PLO targets in the Beka'a Valley.

September 14

President elect Bashir Gemayel is murdered in the Phallange headquarters in Beirut. The IDF is ordered to take control of key positions in West Beirut


Hundreds of thousands protest the War in Lebanon.

September 15

IDF forces enter western Beirut.

September 16

Lebanese Phalangist militiamen murder Palestinian refugees at Sabra and Shatilla.

September 21

Amin Gemayel is elected president of Lebanon.

September 28

IDF withdraws from Beirut. Prime Minister Begin appoints Supreme Court President Yitzchak Kahan to examine Israel's role in themassacre at Sabra and Shatilla.

September 29

Israel completes its withdrawal from West Beirut.

October 4

Israeli jets destroy Syrian SAM 9 missiles in Lebanon.

October 10

The Cabinet announces its position regarding withdrawal of all foreign troops from Lebanon; peace treaty with Lebanon; exchange of prisoners and appropriate security arrangements for Israel.

October 26

An Iranian attempt to disqualify Israel from attending the General Assembly fails.

November 11

The Israeli military government building in Tyre collapses due to gas leakage, 75 Israeli soldiers and 14 local Arabs die, 27 Israelis and 28 Arabs are wounded.

November 28

Foreign Minister Shamir visits Zaire and signs a series of bilateral agreements.

December 10

The UN General Assembly adopts a resolution calling on the Security Council to take action to implement the plan for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. It demands Israeli withdrawl from terrorities seized in 1967, including East Jerusalem. Israel rejects the resolution.


Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary votes to open the rabbinical school to women, allowing them to become Conservativerabbis. Most of the senior Talmudists leave JTS shortly after.

February 8

Kahan Commission releases report on Sabra and Shatilla massacres, finding fault with Israel's actions.

February 9

Ariel Sharon resigns as Defense Minister in the wake of the publications of the Kahan Commission report.

February 11

Emil Grunzweig, a participant in a Peace Now demonstration in Jerusalem, is murdered by a hand grenade thrown at the demonstrators.

February 13

Defense Minister Sharon resigns from his office but remains in the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio. He is replaced by Ambassador Arens.

March 22

Chaim Herzog is elected by the Knesset as Israel's sixth president.

May 16

The Knesset approves the agreement with Lebanon.

May 17

U.S. negotiated withdrawal agreement signed between Israel andLebanon.


Reform rabbinate decides that children of mixed marriages whosefathers are Jewish, are Jewish if so educated.


New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman and Washington Postcolumnist Loren Jenkins win Pulitzer Prizes for their coverage of theLebanon War.

June 10

Three Israeli soldiers are killed near Tyre bringing the number of casualties since June 1982 to 500.

June 24

Syria declares PLO chairman Yasser Arafat “persona non grata” and orders him to leave the country. Arafat flies to Tunis and calls Syria's action “regrettable.”

August 12

Liberia announces resumption of diplomatic relations with Israel at an ambassadorial level.

August 28

Prime Minister Begin informs the Cabinet of his intention to resign from office.

September 2

Prime Minister Begin resigns and Yitzhak Shamir heads new government.

September 3

IDF forces in Lebanon complete the withdrawal to the Awali River.

October 10

Shamir presents his government to the Knesset and wins a vote of confidence. He retains the Foreign Ministry.

October 23

Terrorist attack on U.S. marine headquarters in Beirut kills 241 Americans.

November 4

In a terrorist attack on IDF camp in Tyre, 28 Israeli personnel and 32 local inhabitants are killed.

November 24

In an exchange of prisoners, Israel receives six IDF soldiers in return for 4600 terrorists held in Lebanon and Israel.

November 28

Prime Minister Shamir and Defense Minister Arens hold talks in the White House and reach an agreement on joint Israel-U.S. strategic, political, military and economic cooperation.

December 10

Israeli Navy shells terrorist bases north of Tripoli.

December 20
4000 PLO terrorists are evacuated from Tripoli under UN auspices.


Reconstructionist Rabbinical College votes to admit gays and lesbians as rabbinical students.


Reagan orders U.S. marines to leave Beirut and redeploy off-shore, ending the Amiercan role in the peacekeeping force.

Reverend Jessie Jackson is castigated for calling Jews - “Hymies” and New York - “Hymietown” during a conversation with Washington Post reporter Milton Coleman.
March 5

The Government of Lebanon abrogates unilaterally the May 17, 1983 Israel-Lebanon agreement.

April 2

52 civilians are wounded in a terrorist attack in the heart of Jerusalem. One terrorist is killed and two others captured.

April 12

El Salvador returns its embassy to Jerusalem.

Palestinian gunmen hijack a bus on the Tel Aviv-Ashkelon route, starting “Bus 300” affair when the Shin Bet allegedly executed two of the gunmen while being held captive.
May 1

Three members of the Israel liason unit to Lebanon are kidnapped by Syrian soldiers south of Tripoli.

June 20

Israel and the U.S. hold joint military exercises.

July 23

Elections to the Eleventh Knesset.

September 13

National unity government (Likud and Labor) formed after elections. It is headed by Shimon Peres with Yitzchak Shamir as Vice Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

September 20

A car bomb kills 23 people in the U.S. people in the U.S. embassy in Beirut. The U.S. Senate approves the Trade Bill including an agreement to constitute Free Trade Zone with Israel.

October 7-14

Prime Minister Peres hold talks in Washington with President Reagan and senior officials, Congressional leaders and UN Security General De Cuaillar as well as leaders of the Jewish community.

November 1984 - January 1985

Operation Moses flies 7,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel.

December 11

U.S. and Israeli naval units hold joint maneuvers in the eastern Mediterranean.

December 14

The UN General Assembly adopts a resolution stating, inter alia, that Israel is not a peace loving nation.


Jewish Theological Seminary ordains Amy Eilberg — first woman rabbi ordained by the Conservative movement.

Eilat becomes free trade zone.

Administrative attache at Israeli embassy in Cairo is killed by terrorists.

January 3

Operation Moses, in which 7,500 Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to Israel, ends prematurely due to disclosures.

January 9

Israel jets bomb terrorist bases in the Bekaa Valley.

January 14

The government resolves to redeploy the IDF in Lebanon in three stages. Stage one within five weeks will see the IDF withdrawing from Sidon and being redeployed in the Nabatiyeh-Litani sector; stage two will involve withdrawal in the eastern sector and in the final phase the IDF will be redeployed along the international border. There will be a buffer zone where local Lebanese forces, assisted by the IDF, will operate.

January 20

The IDF commences stage I of the withdrawal.

January 27

Egyptian and Israeli teams start talks in Beer Sheba on Taba. At their conclusion they agree to meet again to resolve the issue.

February 16

The IDF completes the first stage of its withdrawal and redeployment. It is replaced in Sidon by units of the Lebanese army.

March 10

10 soldiers are killed and 14 wounded in a car bomb explosion outside Metulla.

March 12

The U.S. vetoes a Lebanese draft resolution condemning the Israeli Iron Fist policy in Lebanon.

April 5

The U.S. invites Israel to participate in research for the SDI (also known as Star Wars).

April 13

The IDF completes stage 2 of its redeployment in Lebanon when it leaves the Nabatiyeh area.

April 20

The Israeli navy sinks a terrorist ship some 200 kms. at sea. 20 drown and 8 are captured.

April 22
The US-Israel Free Trade Agreement is signed.
April 24
The IDF completes its withdrawal from the Bekaa Valley, Jebel Barukh and Jezzin.

May 1

The U.S. authorizes 1.5 billion dollar emergency aid to Israel.

May 5
President Ronald Reagan makes his controversial visit to Bitburg cemetery in West Germany, a military cemetary which included graves of members of the Nazi Waffen-SS.
May 21
More than 1,150 terrorists imprisoned in Israel are exchanged for three Israeli POWs in the so-called “Jibril Agreement.”
June 6
Notorious Auschwitz doctor, Josef Mengele, is confirmed dead, after his remains were exhumed from a falsely-marked grave in Brazil and tested using DNA.
June 24

Israel releases 31 Lebanese detainees in an effort to help the U.S. obtain the release of passengers hijacked aboard a TWA airliner in Beirut.

July 1

The Cabinet proclaims an emergency economic program to curb inflation. The budget is reduced, prices rise, an 18.8% devaluation of the Shekel and additional taxes are levied.

July 10

In first ruling by Israeli court convicting Israeli Jews of terroristinvolvement, three Jewish settlers are convicted of murder and twelve other defendants are found guilty of committing violent crimes between 1980-84 against West Bank mayors and others.

July 17

Three Israeli delegations proceed to China to sign cooperation agreements in agriculture, hotel development and textile.

August 24

The Israel-U.S. Free Trade Zone Agreement is ratified.

October 1

Israeli airforce jets bomb PLO and Force 17 headquarters in Tunisia following continuous attacks on Israelis abroad and in Lebanon.

October 3

The U.S. abstains during a Security Council vote condemning Israel for the attack on the PLO headquarters in Tunis.

October 5

Egyptian soldier kills seven Israeli civilians touring in the Ras Bourka area in Sinai.

October 8

Palestinian terrorists hijack Italian cruise ship, the Achille Lauro, and murder American Leon Klinghoffer.

November 6

The IDF and the U.S. army hold joint exercises.

November 19

2 Syrian MIGs are downed by Israeli jets over Lebanon as Israel clarifies that it has no interest in escalating the tension with Syria.

November 21

US Navy analyst Jonathan Pollard is arrested in Washington and charged with spying for Israel.

December 28

Terrorists attack El-Al counters in the Rome and Vienna airports killing 15 innocent bystanders.


JTS's new Chancellor, Ismar Schorsch, opens cantorial school to women on same basis as women were previously admitted to rabbinical school.


First liver transplant in Israel takes place.

January 1

The New Shekel replaces the Shekel as Israel's currency (1 NIS = 1,000 shekels).

January 3

Washington reports that Syria had withdrawn SA 6 and SA 8 missiles from Lebanese territory.

January 13

The Inner Cabinet decides that Israel will agree to the resolution of the Taba dispute through international arbitration in return for the fulfillment by Egypt of the normalization agreement and the return of the Egyptian ambassador to Israel.

January 17

Israel and Syria sign in the Hague an agreement to establish diplomatic relations.

February 4

The Israeli airforce intercepts a Libyan executive jet en route to Damascus after hearing that terrorist leaders might be on board. The plane was released. The U.S. vetoes a Syrian resolution in theSecurity Council condemning Israel.

Febuary 11

Anatoly Sharansky, (Natan Sharansky) Soviet Jewish dissident, is freed from a USSR prison after 12 years and arrives in Israel.

February 12

The Ivory Coast and Israel announce the restoration of diplomatic relations.

February 17

IDF soldiers and an SLA soldier are kidnapped in southern Lebanon by Shi'ite terrorists. Efforts to retrieve the kidnapped fail after extensive military operations on land and at sea

February 19

King Hussein announces end of year long effort to construct joint strategy with the PLO.

February 28
Alleged Nazi criminal John Demjanjuk is deported from U.S. for trial in Israel as Treblinka's “Ivan the Terrible.”

Marshall Plan for Middle East Peace discussed.

May 3

Defense Minister Rabin and Defense Secretary Weinberger sign a Memorandum of Understanding on Israel's participation in the Strategic Defense Initiative.


Elie Wiesel wins Nobel Peace Prize.

June 6
Kurt Waldheim is elected president of Austria.
August 18

In their first official diplomatic contact in nineteen years, Soviet and Israeli representatives meet in Helsinki, Finland to discuss resumption of consular relations.

August 24-26

Prime Minister Peres visits Cameroon. At the conclusion of the visit, both countries announce the restoration of diplomatic relations.

September 6

Terrorist attacks against synagogue in Istanbul by Abu Nidal organization on the Neveh Shalom synagogue killing 22 people.

September 30
Mordechai Vanunu, a former technician at the Dimona nuclear plant, is kidnapped by Mossad agents in Rome and smuggled to Israel to stand trial for supplying photos and information to The Sunday Timesin London.
October 16

Ron AradIsraeli Air Force navigator, is captured in Lebanon.

October 20

The rotation agreement is implemented when Shamir becomes Prime Minister and Peres becomes Vice Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

October 29

Yitzchak Shamir presents his government to the Knesset.


Hamas is offically established in the Gaza Strip by Sheikh Ahmad Yassin and other Muslim Brotherhood leaders.

February 9

The first batch of F-16 jet fighters arrive in Israel.

February 14

U.S. grants Israel special status as non-NATO ally.

February 16

Prime Minister Shamir leaves for talks in Washington with President Reagan and senior members of his administration.


Demjanjuk trial begins in Israel.

March 4

Jonathan Jay Pollard, American spy for Israel, is sentenced to life imprisonment after pleading guilty. His wife Anne was sentenced to 5 years in jail.

March 18

The Inner Cabinet denounces the Apartheid policy of South Africa and limits Israel's security ties with Pretoria.

June 4

Landau Commission investigages GSS interrogation methods.

June 4

“Night of the Hang Gliders.” Palestinian terrorist flies over border from Lebanon and attacks an IDF base. Six IDF soldiers killed.

June 9

Togo and Israel resume diplomatic relations.

July 12

A Soviet Consular mission arrives in Israel, the first since 1967.

August 30

The Cabinet decides to halt production of the Lavi fighter jet.


Austrian president Kurt Waldheim, former officer of the Third Reich, is barred from the United States.


German-Israel Foundation for Scientific Research and Development is established.

November 1

Landau Commission presents report.

November 7

Prime Minister General Zeine el Abideen Ben Ali of Tunisiaremoves President Bourguiba from office saying the Tunisian leader had become senile. Ben Ali becomes president.

November 25

Six Israeli soldiers are killed in a camp near Kiryat Shmona by a terrorist who reached Israel on a glider.


First heart transplant performed in Israel.


Two hundred thousand people attend rally in Washington, DC in support of immigration of Soviet Jewry.

December 9

Widespread violence (“The Intifada”) breaks out in Israeli-administered areas.

Defense Minister Rabin and Secretary of Defense Carlucci sign in Washington a Memorandum of Understanding valid for ten years.

January 3

Five residents of the territories are expelled, accused of hostile activities and incitement.

January 6

The Security Council adopts a resolution calling on Israel to refrain from expelling Palestinians from the areas.

January 18

The U.S. vetoes a Security Council draft resolution condemning Israel for bombing raids in Lebanon.

January 30

Prime Minister Shamir expresses reservations over Secretary of State Shultz's plan which includes an interim arrangement for the inhabitants of the territories, an international opening session, bilateral talks on permanent settlement. Shultz called for the implementation of his plan in the course of 1988.

March 7

Three terrorists infiltrate from Egypt, commandeer a bus near Dimona killing three Israeli civilians before being shot dead.

March 14-16

Prime Minister Shamir meets in Washington with President Reagan, Secretary Shultz, and other leading members of the administration as well as Congressional leaders.

April 16

Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), PLO No. 2, is assassinated, apparently by Israeli commandos, at his home in Tunis.

Demjanjuk trial ends.
April 21

Israel and the United States sign a Memorandum of Understanding dealing with military, political, economic and scientific cooperation.

April 28
Demjanjuk is found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. He appeals the ruling, and remains in solitary confinement until 1993.
June 27-28

White House issued a statement announcing a joint Israel-U.S. development of the Arrow anti-missile missile and reaffirming U.S. committment to Israel's security.

June 29

Israel and U.S. cooperate on the production of the Arrow missiles.

July 26

The Israeli Consular Mission in Moscow begins to function.

July 31

King Hussein announces the severance of legal and administrative ties between Jordan and the West Bank.


Twenty-five wounded in a grenade attack at the Haifa mall.

August 1

Israel expels eight leaders of the uprising to Lebanon.

September 5

The covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas, circulated in the West Bank.

September 19

Israel launches into space the Ofeq 1 experimental satellite.

October 11

China agrees to the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.

November 1

Israel elects the 12th KnessetLikud wins 40 seats, Labor 39. The Religious parties obtain 18 seats.

November 15

In Algiers, the Palestinian National Council proclaim the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.

Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) established.
December 10

An IDF rescue team leaves for Armenia to help rescue survivors following a devastating earthquake there.


Arafat says he accepts Israel's right to exist and renounces terrorism to win U.S. recognition.


Likud government in power following elections. National Unity government formed.

December 14

President Ronald Reagan says at a White House press conference that the US has decided to open a dialogue with the PLO.

December 22
The Second National Unity Government is presented to the Knessetheaded by Yitzhak ShamirYitzhak Rabin remains defense minister,Moshe Arens is appointed foreign minister, and Shimon Peres vice premier and finance minister.

Science Minister Ezer Weizman's alleged contacts with the PLO spark a government crisis.
January 1

Fifteen intifada “activists” are expelled to Lebanon.

January 4

Israel and Egypt complete the marking of the border near Taba.

January 9

Six-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.

January 12

The UN Security Council grants the PLO the right to speak directly to the Council as “Palestine,” on the same level as any UN member nation.

January 16

Central African Republic announces restoration of diplomatic relations with Israel.

January 17

The Knesset unanimously adopts a resolution calling on President Bush to pardon Jonathan Pollard.

February 1

Prime Minister Shamir proposes a two-stage peace plan.

February 15

Taba is returned to Egypt via international negotiations.

February 17

Israel's minister for religious affairs visits Hungary, being the first Israeli minister on an official visit to that country.

March 15

Taba is restored to Egyptian sovereignty.

May 14

The government issues a peace initiative based on four points.

June 29

Eight intifada leaders are deported to Lebanon.

July 6

The Security Council condemns Israel for the deportation of eight Palestinians.

July 6

An Arab terrorist commandeers a bus on the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway. The bus crashes into a ravine. 14 passengers are killed and 30 wounded.

July 29

IDF commandos kidnap Sheikh Obeid, Hezbollah's spiritual leader, from his village in southern Lebanon.

September 1

The Soviet government permits the opening of a Jewish school in Riga, the first in fifty years.

September 15

Egypt transmits to Israel a ten-point plan for elections in the areas.

September 18

Israel and Hungary restore full diplomatic relations.

September 22

More than sixty U.S. Senators sign a letter to Secretary of State James Baker opposing the grant of an entry visa for Palestinean leader Yasser Arafat to address the UN Genreal Assembly.

October 4

Egypt and Israel sign a memorandum for the development of industrial and commercial ties.


Syrian pilot defects to Israel, landing a MIG-23 at Megiddo.


Israeli Cabinet and Knesset approve free and democratic elections in the West Bank and Gaza.

October 6

Five point plan for peace proposed by U.S. Secretary of State James Baker.

November 3

Israel and Ethiopia restore full diplomatic relations.

November 9
The Berlin Wall comes down.
November 15

The Prime Minister meets in Washington with President Bush and Secretary of State Baker.

Late 1989

Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1990 - 1999)

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Life magazine's list of the 100 most important Americans of the 20th century included 15 Jews: Irving BerlinLeonard Bernstein, Bob Dylan, Albert Einstein, Abraham Flexner, Betty FriedanMilton Friedman, Edwin Land, William Levitt, Louis B. Mayer, J. Robert Oppenheimer, William Paley, Jonas SalkAlfred Stiegitz, and Walter Winchell.


Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR), the rabbinical schools of the Reform movement, removes obstacles to ordination of gay and lesbian rabbis.


Persian Gulf War: 1990-1991

About 200,000 Soviet immigrants arrive.
Israel and the USSR sign a trade pact after a 23-year break.

January 8

Israel and the U.S. sign a cooperation agreement on medicine.

January 17

Foreign Minister Arens visits Portugal, the first such visit of an Israeli minister.

February 4

Nine Israelis are killed and 16 wounded in an attack on a tourist bus in Egypt.

February 9

Foreign Minister Arens signs a protocol in Prague renewing diplomatic relations between Israel and Czechoslovakia.


Czechoslovakia restores diplomatic relations with Israel.

February 11
Nelson Mandela is freed from prison. A month later he meets withYasser Arafat, who wishes him success in fighting apartheid.
February 27

Poland retores diplomatic relations with Israel.

March 15

Break-up of the national unity government following a vote of no-confidence in the Knesset. The peace process is effectively in abeyance.

March 24

U.S. Senate adopts a resolution recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

April 3

Israel and Bulgaria sign a protocol to restore diplomatic relations.

April 23
Israel launches the Ofek 2 satellite into space.
April 24

The U.S. House of Representatives adopts a resolution recognizingJerusalem as the capital of Israel.

May 3

Israel and Bulgaria restore full diplomatic relations.

May 20

Ami Popper murders seven Arab workers at Vradim Junction in Rishon Lezion.

May 21

Greece grants a de jure recognition to Israel and establishes full diplomatic relations with Israel.

May 30

Two motorboats manned by PLO terrorists land in central Israel.IDF repulses the attackers. The Palestine Liberation Front assumes responsibility for the raid.

May 31

The U.S. vetoes a draft resolution in the Security Council to send an observer to the territories.

June 8

Yitzhak Shamir presents his government to the Knesset. David Levy appointed foreign minister and Moshe Arens defense minister.

June 20

The U.S. suspends its dialogue with the PLO for its failure to condemn the May 30 attacks on Israel.

August 2

Iraq invades Kuwait.

August 6

The Security Council imposes economic sanctions on Iraq.

August 7

The U.S. begins to send troops to the Persian Gulf.

August 8

Iraq annexes Kuwait.

August 9

Saddam Hussein says that military action against Iraq will be met with a strike on Israel.

August 18

Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz says Iraq will use chemical weapons if Israel uses nuclear arms.

September 3

Foreign Minister Levy visits Washington, meets with Secretary Baker. It is agreed that there be no linkage between the resolution of the Gulf crisis and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Agreement is reached on granting of U.S. loan guarantees of 400 million dollars.

September 17

Saudi Arabia and USSR sign agreement in Moscow restoring diplomatic relations after 52-year hiatus.

October 8

Disturbances on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem kill 21 Arabs.

October 9

Saddam Hussein threatens Israel with new missiles “when the time comes.”

October 12

The Security Council adopts a resolution condemning Israel and sending a fact-finding mission to Jerusalem.

October 24

The Security Council unanimously deplores Israel's refusal to permit a fact-finding mission.

November 5

Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of Jewish Defense League and KachParty, assasinated in New York City.

November 29

The Security Council authorizes use of all necessary means againstIraq unless it withdrawls by January 15, 1991.

December 11

Following a meeting with President Bush in the White House, Prime Minister Shamir says that he was promised that there would be no deals at Israel's expense.

December 20

The Security Council approves a resolution condemning Israel's policy of expulsion calling lands occupied by Israel in 1967 including Jerusalem, Palestinian territories.

December 23

Saddam Hussein tells Spanish Television that Tel Aviv will be Iraq's first target if war breaks out.

December 24

Prime Minister Shamir threatens retaliation if Israel is attacked.

December 31

Israeli jets strike PLO bases in Lebanon.

January 10

First Patriot surface-to-air missile batteries arrive in Israel.

January 14

Civil defense authorities instruct Israelis to begin preparing sealed rooms.


PLO's second-ranking official Abu Iyad (Salah Khalaf) is assassinated in Tunis.

January 15

Beginning of the Gulf War. Israel goes into state of alert as war breaks out.

January 18

Israel attacked by eight Iraqi Scud missiles during the Gulf War. Two missiles hit Tel Aviv and a third lands near Haifa, causing great damage in residential areas.

January 19

Four Iraqi Scuds launched at Israel.

January 22
A Scud missile hits Ramat Gan. 96 are injured, 400 apartments are damaged.
January 23

A Scud missile is intercepted over Haifa; as it fell it shattered windows in the Haifa area.

January 24

Eight Scuds are fired at Israel. One person is killed, 45 are injured in Ramat Gan, 144 apartments are heavily damaged, 400 other apartments are lightly damaged.

January 25
Four Scud missiles are fired at Israel. 3 are intercepted over Haifa and one over Tel Aviv. Slight damage is reported.
January 28

A Scud missile lands in the Galilee, causing no damage or injuries.

January 31

A Scud lands in the West Bank causing no injuries or damage.

February 2

A Scud missile lands in Israel causing no injury or damage.

February 3

A Scud missile lands in Israel causing no injuries or damage.

February 8

A Scud lands in the center of Israel. 25 civilians are injured, 400 apartments are damaged.

February 11

A Schud lands in the center of Israel causing no injury or damage.

February 12

A Scud missile lands near Tel Aviv injuring 6 residents and damaging dozens of homes.

February 19

2 Scuds are fired at Israel. One lands in the Negev, the other in the Galilee. Both cause no injuries or damage.

February 20

US releases $400 million loan guarentee to Israel for housing forSoviet Jewish immigrants.

February 23

A Scud lands in the center of Israel causing a fire to break out, but no injuries or damage are reported.

February 25

Two Scuds land in the Negev desert causing no injuries or damage.

February 28

Gulf War ends.

February 28

Israel congratulates President Bush as the Gulf War comes to an end. Israel demands the elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.

April 1

Ehud Barak apointed twelfth IDF Chief-of-General Staff.


Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid.

May 24-25

Operation Solomon brings Jews from Ethiopia to Israel. About 14,500 Ethiopian Jews are rescued and airlifted to Israel with 24 hours, just hours before the Mengistu regimes collapse.

July 14

The Congo restores diplomatic relations with Israel.

August 19

Albania's foreign minister visits Israel. Diplomatic relations are established.

September 4

Israel recognizes the independence of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.

September 13

U.S. President George Bush criticizes Israel's friends in the U.S. and asks Israel to delay its request for $10 billion loan guarantees.

September 18
Peace activist Abie Nathan is sentenced to 18 months in jail for contacts with the PLO.
October 18
Secretary of State Baker visits Israel and together with Soviet Foreign Minister Bessmertnykh delivers a letter of invitation to the Madrid Peace Conference.
October 18

Soviet Union restores full diplomatic relations with Israel.

October 24

Israeli embassy in Moscow is rededicated.

October 30-31

Madrid Peace Conference.

October 31

Bilateral talks are held in Madrid between Israel and SyriaLebanonand a Palestinian-Jordanian delegation.

November 3

Israel ratifies UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.


Albania's last 11 Jews arrive in Israel.


Riots break out in Crown Heights, NY after a seven-year old black boy is killed by a car driven by Hasidic Jews.

December 9

Second round of the Middle East bilateral talks begins in Washington.

December 16

United Nations rescinds resolution equating Zionism with racism.

December 23

Soviet Ambassador Alexander Bovin presents his credentials to President Herzog.

December 26
Israel and Zambia restore diplomatic relations.


Conservative synagogue arm, United Synagogue of America, changes its name to United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism.

January 3

Israel decides to expel 12 Palestinians following the murder of an Israeli settler in the Gaza Strip.

January 10

Security Council condemns Israel for the expulsion of the Palestinians.

January 18-22

Another round of peace talks is held in Washington.

January 24

Israel and the People's Republic of China establish diplomatic relations.

January 28-29

The multilateral Middle East peace talks are held in Moscow.

January 29

Diplomatic relations established with India.

February 16

Hezbollah's chief Abbas Musawi is killed in an Israeli air strike in Southern Lebanon.

Kiryat Shemona comes under heavy katyusha fire from Lebanon.
February 27-March 4
Another round of bilateral talks held in Washington ends inconclusively.
March 10
Islamic Jihad terrorists assassinate an Israeli security officer in Ankara.
March 17
Five killed and 106 wounded in attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires.
March 18
Knesset passes law for direct  election of the prime minister.
March 20
The U.S. accuses Israel of transferring to China information on the Patriot missile. Israel denies the charges.
April 12

Kazakhstan establishes diplomatic relations with Israel.

April 16
Angola establishes diplomatic relations with Israel.
April 26-29
Another round of peace talks is held in Washington
May 1-8
Another round of peace talks is held in Washington
May 4
Armenia establishes diplomatic relations with Israel.
May 10
King Hussein announces he will donate $8.25 million to restore Al-Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock mosque in Jerusalem.
June 8
Acting PLO security head Atif Basaysu assassinated in Paris.
June 23
Elections for Thirteenth KnessetLabor wins majority for the first time since 1977. Labor gains 44 seats, Likud 32, Meretz 12.
July 10
New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor party.
July 20
Israel formally requests loan guarantees from the U.S.
July 30 and 31
Israel wins first Olympic medals, silver and bronze in Judo.
August 21-23
A Memorandum of Understanding on trade, economic affairs and tourism is signed
August 23
Israel announces the release of 800 Palestinian prisoners. 280 houses sealed since 1987 in teh areas would be unsealed.
August 24
Round Six of the bilateral peace talks resumes in Washington until September 3
Prime Minister Rabin cancels 11 deportation orders against PLO activists.
August 25
Israel presents a detailed autonomy plan, defining the role of the Palestinian Administrative Council controlling civilian matters.
September 10
Rabin announces that Israel is ready to accept territorial compromise on the Golan Heights in return for peace.
September 13
Gambia restores diplomatic relations with Israel.
September 14-24
The second session of Round Six of the bilateral peace talks is held in Washington.
September 15-17
Round Two of the Arms Control and Regional Security multilateral talks is held in Moscow
September 16-17
Round Two of multilateral talks is held in Washington.
September 26-27
Round Two of the multilateral talks on Environment is held in The Hague
October 5
Nicaragua restores diplomatic relations with Israel.
October 5
U.S. Congress approves the foreign aide appropriations for fiscal 1993, including the annual $3-billion military and economic aid package and the $10-billion loan guarantees
October 21-29
Session One of Round Seven of the bilateral talks is held in Washington.
October 28
Israel and Jordan announce that they had almost completed a full agenda on peace treaty, water and land claims, arms control and Palestinian refugees in Jordan
October 29-30
Multilateral talks on Economic Development are held in Paris
November 9-19
Session Second of Round Seven of the bilateral peace talks is held in Washington
November 11-12
Multilateral talks on refugees are held in Ottawa. Syria and Lebanon boycott the talks.
December 7-17
Round Eight of the bilateral peace talks is held in Washington.